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Year 2021 , Volume  53, Issue 1
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1

Exogenous application of spermidine (SPD) and wood vinegar improves salt tolerance in salt-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L.)


Piyada Theerakulpisut, Punya Madee, Dechudom Pamuta and Noppawan Nounjan

Exogenous application of spermidine (SPD) and wood vinegar improves salt tolerance in salt-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L.)


ABSTRACT:

Spermidine (Spd) and wood vinegar are widely reported for its positive role to ameliorate plants under abiotic stress. In this study, the protective roles of Spd and wood vinegar in salt-sensitive rice cultivars ‘Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML105)’ and ‘RD6’ exposed to salinity stress were investigated under greenhouse and field conditions by dividing into two experiments. Under the greenhouse condition, three concentrations of Spd (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM) were sprayed daily to 60-d-old ‘KDML105’ plants (booting stage) grown in soil for 7 d ahead of watering the plants with tap water (control) or 30 mM NaCl (salt stress). The results showed that spraying 0.5 mM Spd was most effective in improving the salt tolerance of ‘KDML105’ as evidenced by an increase in the development of flag leaves, SPAD values, yield and yield components. To reduce crop production cost, the second experiment was conducted. The concentration of Spd used was based on the greenhouse experiment. Exogenous Spd (0.5 mM) was applied in comparison with wood vinegar (1:300 and 1:500) under field condition. Rice ‘KDML105’ and ‘RD6’ were grown under low (EC = 3 dS m-1) and high (EC = 10 dS m-1) saline fields. At the booting stage, Spd or wood vinegar were sprayed daily for 7 d. In both saline field sites, both rice cultivars sprayed with Spd and/or wood vinegar at all tested ratios showed a marked increase in yield and yield components, with better results observed for ‘KDML105’. The findings suggest that Spd and wood vinegar could be applied for alleviating the effects of salt stress on rice production.

1-9 Download
2

Ionomic and antioxidant system responses to Na2SO4 stress of two cotton cultivars differing in salt tolerance


Huijuan Guo, Shuangnan Li, Jun Ye, Wei Min and Zhenan Hou

Ionomic and antioxidant system responses to Na2SO4 stress of two cotton cultivars differing in salt tolerance


ABSTRACT:

Understanding the impact of salt stress on cotton growth, the antioxidant system, and ionomic responses is of great importance for maintaining cotton productivity and sustainability in arid regions. In this study, we investigated the physiological and ionomic responses of different cotton cultivars (salt-sensitive X45 and salt-tolerant L24) to Na2SO4 stress under greenhouse conditions. We found a low concentration of Na2SO4 mainly inhibited cotton shoot growth, whereas high concentrations of Na2SO4 significantly inhibited cotton shoot and root growth. The growth inhibition rate of Na2SO4 stress was higher for X45 than for L24. Na2SO4 stress increased relative electrical conductivity (REC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline (Pro) contents. The REC and MDA content in L24 leaves were significantly lower than those in X45 leaves. As the Na2SO4 stress increased, the SOD, POD, and CAT activities increased first and then decreased; Pro in L24 continued to increase, but in X45, it first increased and then decreased. The activities of SOD, POD, and CAT, and the PRO content in L24 leaves were significantly higher than those in X45. The contents of Ca, Cu, B, and Mo in roots and Ca in leaves in both cultivars decreased significantly; L24 stored Na in cotton leaves under salt stress and transported more mineral elements to leaves (P, Cu, Ca, Mg, Zn, and B). However, X45 tended to accumulate more mineral elements in roots (Ca, Fe, and Mo). Correlation analysis showed that cotton mainly absorbed mineral elements in roots to resist Na2SO4 stress. It was concluded that cotton cultivars showed different reaction to Na2SO4 stress, and salt-tolerant cotton has a stronger antioxidant enzyme system, which allows ion homeostasis through root absorption of more mineral elements.

11-21 Download
3

LeERF-1, an ethylene response factor gene from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, confers enhanced tolerance to cold and salt stresses in Arabidopsis


Hua Zhao, Rongjun Fang, Zhaoyue Wang, Aiqian Li, Shoucheng Huang, Jiangyan Fu, Zhongling Wen, Minkai Yang, Bao Liu, Guihua Lu, Runan Tian, Jinliang Qi and Yonghua Yang

LeERF-1, an ethylene response factor gene from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, confers enhanced tolerance to cold and salt stresses in Arabidopsis


ABSTRACT:

The ethylene responsive transcription factors (ERFs) play various functions in the processes of plant growth, development and myriad stress responses. We previously reported one light-regulated gene, LeERF-1, possibly paticipated in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in medicinal plant Lithospermumerythrorhizon. Here, we further reported the function of LeERF-1 in cold and salt stress resistance by heterologous overexpressing in Arabidopsis. After cold treatment, the LeERF-1 overexpression lines (OE) exhibited better phenotype, higher survival rates, highersuperoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities than that of the wild type (WT); while the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of OE lines were significantly lower than that of WT. Exposing to 200 mM NaCl stress treatment, the germination and survival rates of OE lines were also remarkably higher than that of WT; The leaves of OE lines maintained relative lower proline content and had significantly lower Na+/ K+ ratio compared to that of WT. These findings collectively indicate that over-expression of LeERF-1 confers improved cold and salt resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis

23-30 Download
4

PGPR assisted bioremediation of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in Zea mays under saline sodic soil


Asadullah, Asghari Bano and Hassaan Javed

PGPR assisted bioremediation of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in Zea mays under saline sodic soil


ABSTRACT:

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of four plant growth promoting rhizobacteria; Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus pumilus, Lysinibacillus sphaericus and Exiguobacterium aurantiacum isolated from saline soil on the uptake, accumulation and translocation of essential nutrients and heavy metals in Zea mays L. grown in saline sodic field. The PGPR exhibited significant increases in Na, K, Ca, Fe and Zn concomitant with significant decreases in Cd and Ni contents were recorded in the rhizosphere soil of maize inoculated with Pseudomonas putida. The PGPR increased availability of Fe and Zn in the rhizosphere soil, their uptake in roots and its translocation to leaves and grain. Bacillus pumilus effectively decreased Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation in grains whereas, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd accumulation were more effectively reduced in leaves and grains of Pseudomonas putida inoculated plants. Pseudomonas putida increased biological accumulation coefficient of Cr, biological concentration factor for Cr, Cd and Ni but increased translocation factor for Pb. Whereas, Bacillus pumilus enhanced TF for Cd and Pb. Bacillus pumilus inoculated plants had significantly lower Na and K but had higher Ca, Fe and Zn over C. Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus pumilus can be implicated for enhanced bioremediation of heavy metals and for increased Zn and Fe accumulation in leaves and grain

31-38 Download
5

Mitigation of lead stress in Triticum aestivum L. seedlings by treating with salicylic acid


Syeda Rizwana Gillani, Ghulam Murtaza and Ansar Mehmood

Mitigation of lead stress in Triticum aestivum L. seedlings by treating with salicylic acid


ABSTRACT:

Heavy metal pollution is a serious issue for the large parts of world especially with respect to agriculture. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM) on biochemical attributes in three wheat varieties (Millat-2011, Aas-2011 and FSD-2008) under lead stress (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 mM). The experiment was designed in completely randomized design (CRD) with five replicates. Increasing lead (Pb) concentration from 0 to 1.5 mM caused several disruptions in wheat varieties, reflected by reduction in chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein and soluble sugar contents but amount of proline increased with rise in Pb levels. However, the applications of salicylic acid (SA) significantly lowered the effect of Pb and enhanced the amount of biochemical attributes of T. aestivum L. cultivars. Maximum improvement was perceived at 0.5 mM SA concentration. In conclusion, the application of SA is proved to be suitable to minimize the effect of Pb in wheat. 

39-44 Download
6

Assessment of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes for drought stress tolerance using morpho-physiological indices as a screening technique


Asma, Iqbal Hussain, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan Ashraf, Rizwan Rasheed, Muhammad Iqbal, Sumera Anwar, Aisha Shereen and Muhammad Athar Khan

Assessment of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes for drought stress tolerance using morpho-physiological indices as a screening technique


ABSTRACT:

Drought stress is one of the primary problem for agricultural crops which causes a great decline in crop production in Pakistan and worldwide. Rice is an economically main cereal crop affected by drought stress. In this study, twenty-one rice genotypes (including 19 mutants (M5 generation) of super basmati and two varieties were subjected to various concentration of PEG-600 (10% and 15%) at seedling stage to explore the mechanism of drought stress tolerance. PEG-6000 induced drought stress caused a substantial decline in growth attributes and relative water contents (RWC), and increase the levels of electrolyte leakage (EL), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in all rice genotypes. A significant difference among the tested rice genotypes based on morpho-physiological indiceswas recorded. Based on morpho-physiological indices (RLSI, SLSI, PFWSI, PDWSI, EL, MDA and H2O2), genotypes HTT-119, HTT-74, HTT-92, HTT-97, HTT-104, HTT-119, HTT-125 and HTT-132 were categorized as drought tolerant, while HTT-19, HTT-39, Super basmati (Super Bas), HTT-81, and IR-64 performed poorly recognized as sensitive genotypes. In addition, remaining eight mutants were identified as moderate tolerant. According to present study findings, the screened rice genotypes for drought tolerance can also be suggested to farmers for the improved production and yield of crop on drought-affected area

45-58 Download
7

24-epibrassinolide (EBR) reduces oxidative stress damage induced by cadmium toxicity by restricting cd uptake and modulating some key antioxidant enzymes in maize plants


Pravej Alam, Thamer Al Balawi, Muhammad Ashraf and Parvaiz Ahmad

24-epibrassinolide (EBR) reduces oxidative stress damage induced by cadmium toxicity by restricting cd uptake and modulating some key antioxidant enzymes in maize plants


ABSTRACT:

The current investigation was performed to assess the mitigating role of externally supplemented 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) against cadmium (Cd, 100 and 200 µM) induced stress in maize plants. Cadmium toxicity decreased shoot and root lengths, pigment content, and relative water content, whereas it raised proline content in the maize plants. Cadmium stress also increased the generation of oxidative stress biomarkers like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (determined as malondialdehyde content, MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL). Highest concentration (200 µM) of Cd showed a maximum enhancement in the oxidative stress biomarkers than 100 µM. The activities of enzymatic antioxidants increased markedly with the Cd stress. The activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased by 42.10% and 23.5% with 200 µM Cd and 64.21% and 54.50% with 200 µM Cd, respectively, whereas the GST activity was decreased by 13.84% with 100 µM and 28.75% with 200 µM Cd. However, EBR application restored the Cd-induced reduction in growth parameters and physio-biochemical attributes EBR supplemented plants also abated the accretion of H2O2 and MDA contents and EL. The supplementation of EBR restored the GST activity and it also helped to further enhance the activities of SOD and CAT in the Cd stressed plants. The findings suggest that external supplementation of EBR provides a protection to maize plants against Cd toxicity by modifying growth attributes, and regulating physio-biochemical characteristics and some critical antioxidants.

59-66 Download
8

Physiological and multigenic characteristics of widely used tree and herbaceous peonies in response to field stress in Yanqing, Beijing, China


Wensi Tang, Longjun Chao, Arshad Iqbal, Wenbiao Zhang, Jing Ding and Huafang Wang

Physiological and multigenic characteristics of widely used tree and herbaceous peonies in response to field stress in Yanqing, Beijing, China


ABSTRACT:

There are nine Chinese indigenous tree peony species including Paeonia suffruticosa and Paeonia rockii, which have hundreds of traditional ornamental cultivars widely grown in China and other countries we assessed the adaptability of four peonies to this specific site using field trials. Four one-, two-, and three-year old plants of different varieties or cultivars were grown unprotected and their growth, 13 physiological criteria, and the sequence and expression characteristics of three gene homologs in response to the severe field conditions were assessed. The growth of three-year old plants was significantly different from the others. The membership function values of the four peonies in decreasing order were as follows: P. ostii var. lishizhenii > P. suffruticosa ‘Wulong Pengsheng’ (with P. ostii var. lishizhenii used as the rootstock). > P. rockii ‘Bingshan Xuelian’ > P. lactiflora ‘Taohong Yushuang’. Some differences in the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of the dehydration responsive element binding protein 2A (DREB2A), WRKY19, and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) multigenes were observed between species. The phylogenetic tree based on conserved DREB2A sequences clustered into one branch with all four peony species, branches of P. ostii and other varieties for WRKY, and three branches of P. ostii, P. rockii, and other identified sub-clusters for XET. Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction divided the four peonies into two groups: stress-insensitive (P. ostii var. lishizhenii, P. rockii ‘Bingshan Xuelian’) and stress-sensitive (P. suffruticosa ‘Wulong Pengsheng’ and P. lactiflora ‘Taohong Yushuang’). Notably, both groups adapted to field stress at the site in Yanqing, Beijing, albeit to different degrees. Together, these results indicate the importance of exploring the characteristics of peony adaptability to inform their relative suitability for specific horticultural applications.

67-79 Download
9

Impact of electromagnetic field and heavy metal on growth of Vigna radiata


Muniza Riaz, Sahar Zaidi, Iram Us Salam, Kauser Yasmeen, Akhter Raza and Nabeela Mahmood

Impact of electromagnetic field and heavy metal on growth of Vigna radiata


ABSTRACT:

The present study deals with the individual and combined effect of heavy metals and EMF. The treatments include different concentrations of lead and cadmium (250mm, 500mm and 750mm) which are selected as higher than permissible limits and other is an electromagnetic field (EMF). The effect of these stresses studied on the length of plant, the leaves number, biomass of plant and accumulation of lead and cadmium contents in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata). The results showed 500 and 750mm of lead and cadmium significantly decline plant height, the number of leaves and whole plant fresh and dry weight as in order (Cd 750mm> Cd 500mm>Pb750mm>Pb500mm), but a slight suppressed in all developing parameters and weight when exposed by EMF. Whereas, the combined treatment of lead+EMF and cadmium+EMF i.e 750mmCd +EMF>750mmPb + EMF cause a considerable decline in growth parameter and biomass of mung bean. In mung bean sequence of accumulation of lead and cadmium functioning as Cd 750mm> Cd 750mm EMF> Cd 500mm> Pb 750mm EMF> Pb 750mm. This significant building up of lead and cadmium content under single and combined treatment affected the growth factors of mung bean seedlings.

81-88 Download
10

Effective regeneration and transformation of potato variety Desiree with nucleotide diphosphate kinase 2 using IAA and BAP


Samiha Rashid, Muhammad Saad, Sofia Baig, Mohammad Maroof Shah, Ismat Nawaz and Ayesha Baig

Effective regeneration and transformation of potato variety Desiree with nucleotide diphosphate kinase 2 using IAA and BAP


ABSTRACT:

The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of different combinations of two growth regulators IAA and BAP on the In vitro regeneration of potato for successful transformation. The best optimized concentrations for potato regeneration was used for Agrobacterium mediated transformation with Arabidopsis Nucleotide Diphosphate Kinase2 (NDPK2). Potato is vulnerable to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses which limit its production. The effective In vitro regeneration of potato was carried out using Indol acetic acid (IAA) and Benzyl aminopurine (BAP) for transformation with (NDPK2) known to be involved in various environmental stresses. The internode explants of potato Desiree variety were cultured on MS media augmented with different concentrations of IAA i.e. (1.2, 1.5, 1.7, 2.0, 2.5 mg.L-1) in combination with BAP 1 mg.L-1. Data was collected after 15, 30 and 45 days of culturing and analyzed for statistical significance using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Fisher least significance using R- program was used to compare means at p = 0.05 level of significance. Transformation with NDPK2 was carried out using optimized regeneration protocol. The results indicated that high concentration of IAA i.e. 2.0 mg.L-1 with 1 mg.L-1 of BAP proved to be best for root regeneration. In all other parameters like shoot length, number of leaves, stem diameter and leaf area and potato regeneration, 1:1.5 mg.L-1 of BAP: IAA produced best result and thus was transformed with NDPK2 that generated 7 confirmed transgenic potato plants on PCR based sequencing. The findings demonstrate that the combination of BAP:IAA of 1:1.5 mg.L-1 can be regarded as the best optimized concentration for regeneration for stress related NDPK2 Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Desiree variety in potato.

89-96 Download
11

Effect of two nocturnal temperatures on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaves and panicle characteristics in seven rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes


Oscar H. Alvarado-Sanabria, Gabriel A. Garces-Varon and Hermann Restrepo-Diaz

Effect of two nocturnal temperatures on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaves and panicle characteristics in seven rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes


ABSTRACT:

High night temperature periods have reduced rice crop yields in recent years in Colombia. One of the strategies used to address this situation has been selecting tolerant genotypes and identifying physiological variables that serve as selection criteria in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two-night temperatures (24°C vs. 30°C) on the physiological and agronomic performance of seven rice genotypes (Fedearroz 50 (F50), Fedearroz 60 (F60), IR 1561, FLO 2764, LV447-1, CT19021 and LV1401). At milk growth stage, a group of six plants of each genotype was placed in a growth chamber between 18:00 and 24:00 h at 30°C for a period of eight days (stressed plants). Meanwhile, another group of rice plants sorted by genetic material was kept under normal growth conditions (24°C) in a shade house (Control Plants). Results showed that rice genotype F50 plants showed a lower rate of spikelet fertility compared to the other genotypes studied at 30°C (p≤0.05). Leaf photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll α fluorescence parameters (Y(II), Y(NPQ), Y(NO) and Fv/Fm ratio) showed no differences between night temperatures; however, significance differences were found among genotypes. The above results suggest that Y(II), Y(NPQ), Y(NO) and Fv/Fm in rice plants at advanced phenological stages (milk stage) are not an effective tool to quantify the physiological behavior of rice genotypes under a high night temperature condition

97-103 Download
12

Starch accumulation, size distribution and related enzyme activity in superior and inferior kernels of maize under different nitrogen rates


Wenyang Li, Zhi Tan, Rui Li, Jianxin Yuan, Suhui Yan and Congfeng Li

Starch accumulation, size distribution and related enzyme activity in superior and inferior kernels of maize under different nitrogen rates


ABSTRACT:

Compared to inferior kernels, superior kernels had significantly higher amount of starch accumulation in maize at maturity. The logistic simulation showed that the starting potential and mean accumulation rate were affected by kernel position in the regulation of starch accumulation. The contents of sucrose in inferior kernels were significantly higher than those in superior kernels during kernel growth. The activities of related enzymes, sucrose synthase (SS) and ADPG pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), in superior kernels were much higher compared to inferior kernels. The results suggested that high starch accumulation was caused by high activities of SS and AGPase but not by high starch synthase substrate levels in superior kernels compared to inferior kernels. Nitrogen could increase the degradation and utilization of sucrose and the level of starch synthesis, as well as accelerate the formation of small granules in maize. The volume percentages of granules <18 and >18 μm in superior kernels were significantly higher and lower than those in inferior kernels, respectively. However, kernel position had little influence on the number percentages of granules <3, 3-18 and >18 μm. These results suggest that it is more conducive to increase of individual volume of small and midsized starch granules in superior kernels within a maize ear. There was small difference on the mean AGPase activities during filling between superior and inferior kernels under normal nitrogen compared with low nitrogen. Thus, normal application decreased the variation on the starch accumulation and volume percentage of large starch granules in both kernels.

 

105-111 Download
13

Principal component analysis and assessment of Brassica napus L. accessions for salt tolerance using stress tolerance indices


Shamsa Kanwal, M. Hammad Nadeem Tahir and Humera Razzaq

Principal component analysis and assessment of Brassica napus L. accessions for salt tolerance using stress tolerance indices


ABSTRACT:

Due to genetic variations, the crop plants show different responses on exposure to salinity stress, enable plant biologists to find salinity tolerant types of crop plants. Many plant breeders have been successful in improving the salinity tolerance in various crops using plant vigor or seed yield as the main criteria for selection. Selection becomes more useful and feasible if the crop possesses distinguishing indicators of salt tolerance at the cellular, tissue or whole plant level. Soil salinity occurs in patches and is more heterogeneous in field conditions. Therefore screening plants in greenhouse conditions where saline conditions are reasonably uniform is effective and credible. Hydroponic culture technique is commonly used for studying the effects of salinity on crop plants as it helps in observing the effects of elemental deficiencies and toxicities. In the present study 60 accessions of Brassica napus were evaluated for salinity tolerance using hydroponic technique. Data were recorded on various seedling traits (root length, shoot length, fresh root weight, fresh shoot weight, dry root weight, dry shoot weight and Na+/K+ ratio) and salinity stress indices were calculated. Ten salt tolerant (G-96, ZNR-1, ZM-M-5, 23627, R-3, ZMR-10, BLBN, RBJ-8007, ZMR-2, B-56 and six sensitive (Legend, Laclone, Faisal, Shiralee, Long and ZMR-5) accessions were selected on the basis of computed indices through principal component analysis (PCA). This study may be helpful for the comparison of salinity indices in a controlled experimental assay and for the identification of salinity tolerant brassica types to be used in further breeding programs.

113-118 Download
14

Molecular cloning of BeMYB140 from Bambusa eminencies, canvassing transactivation and expression profiling for its dynamic chunk against abiotic stresses


Muhammad Imran, Naseem Samo, Shanglian Hu, Xuegang Luo and Ying Cao

Molecular cloning of BeMYB140 from Bambusa eminencies, canvassing transactivation and expression profiling for its dynamic chunk against abiotic stresses


ABSTRACT:

The MYB is a major family of transcriptional factor’s (TFs), which significantly regulate several physiological processes in plants, i.e. growth, metabolism and development on one side and defenses against abiotic and biotic stresses on other. In this research a novel gene “BeMYB140” (GenBank accession number MG763923) encoded for TF was cloned and characterized from Bambusa emeiensis. The isolated gene BeMYB140 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 723bp which encoded a protein of 240 amino acids with a predicted relative molecular mass of 27.34346 kDa. Multiple proteins sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this protein contains a typical MYB domain and showed high homology with HvMYB1, ZmMYB38 and AtMYB4. Meanwhile, transactivation analysis and sub-cellular localization assay unveiled that the BeMYB140 protein is a transcriptional activator and localized in the nucleus. Moreover, BeMYB140 exhibited a dynamic expression under different abiotic stressors, such as, in response to ABA and Na2SO4 treatments down regulation was followed by a significant up-regulation; whereas the opposite results were observed during PEG treatment. The highly significant difference and maximum fold changes were observed in PEG, NaCl and H2O2 treatments. In ABA and NaCl treatments the peak expression level were observed during 3hrs, meanwhile, under PEG and H2O2 treatments BeMYB140 was strongly induced during later stages i.e. 24hrs. It is concluded from the results, that BeMYB140 involved in broad range of abiotic stresses and mediates stress tolerance in Bambusa emeiensis.

119-125 Download
15

Effect of natural high temperature and flooding conditions on Cry1Ac gene expression in different transgenic Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars


Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad, Dilawar Majeed, Abid Ali, Muhammad Sufian, Zubair Aslam, Mujahid Manzoor and Jam Nazeer Ahmad

Effect of natural high temperature and flooding conditions on Cry1Ac gene expression in different transgenic Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars


ABSTRACT:

A severe abiotic and biotic stress was faced to cotton growers in South Punjab due to high temperature and high rain fall occurred during 2014.  In current study, variation in the Cry1Ac gene expression from samples collected from five Bt (IUB-212, CIM 616, CIM-598, Lalazar, FH-183 containing Cry1Ac insecticidal gene) and one non Bt cotton (MNH 786) cultivars cultivated in three districts (Multan, Bahawalpur and Rahim Yar khan) of Southern Punjab were investigated. The investigated varieties were also cultivated under optimal greenhouses controlled conditions for expression analysis of Cry1Ac. The samples were taken to IGCDB laboratory for Cry1Ac gene expression analysis through quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. The results indicated the abrupt variation in the expression of cry 1Ac gene in samples collected from environmental stressed districts of Punjab. Combined stress of high temperature and humidity variation resulted the down-regulation of Bt protein expression as compared to control greenhouse grown plants. The Bt cotton control efficacy was considerably reduced due to combined stress. It was concluded that reduced expression of Cry1Ac during 2014 was due to adverse environmental condition attributed to the degenerated levels of Bt endotoxin protein. This is the first report of the influence of abiotic stresses on the expressional variation in cry 1Ac and ultimately high infestation of insect pest on cotton in Pakistan.

127-134 Download
16

Ethno medicinal and phytochemical properties of genus Allium: a review of recent advances


Syed Najeebullah, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Sohail Ahmad Jan, Ibrahim Khan and Muhammad Ali

Ethno medicinal and phytochemical properties of genus Allium: a review of recent advances


ABSTRACT:

Allium is one of the largest genera of monocotyledons with 900 species distributed all over the world. It is also one of the most important genera containing several medicinal and edible plants. Various species of Allium are known since ancient times and are used as spices, vegetables and, as medical plants. Allium cepa (common onion) and Allium sativum (common garlic) are the two main species that have widely been used for therapeutic properties. Studies have revealed many members of the genus Allium as rich source of secondary metabolites which contributes to its biological activities. A wide variety of phytochemicals including the flavonoids, alkaloids, sulfides, saponins, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and several compounds of the sulfur containing amino acids cysteine have been identified as main constituents of these plants. The antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of many Allium species have been authenticated worldwide. The antifungal and antimicrobial activities of bulbs and aerial parts of species have been reported. In addition, species from this genus have a wide array of biological activities like antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-diabetic potentials as well as beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. The present article reviews recent advances in ethno-medicinal uses and active phytochemicals found in the various species of the genus Allium.

135-144 Download
17

Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet sorghum collection using phenotypic variation and SSR markers


Jiacheng Zheng, Ting Liu, Yuchen Qian, Jieqin Li, Yanlong Liu, Shuang Cheng, Zhaoshi Xu and Qiuwen Zhan

Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet sorghum collection using phenotypic variation and SSR markers


ABSTRACT:

In this study, 32 germplasm resources of sweet sorghum were identified to evaluate the phenotypic and genetic diversity. The results showed that the diversity index (H?) of agronomic traits was within the range of 1.716 - 2.062, with a specially richer diversity of spike types. 899 polymorphic bands were amplified by 43 pairs of SSR primers, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 0.06 to 0.49, with the genetic diversity index (Nei) ranged from 0 to 0.646. Three principal components were extracted from nine agronomic traits, and the “grain yield” factors of the first principal component were negatively correlated with the “biological yield” factors of the second. 32 germplasm resources were divided into 4 groups, and group IVexhibited the wide distribution of spike types, high grain yields and brix rate. These indicated that the genetic diversity of the germplasm population was low although observing the variable phenotypes among different varieties, possibly due to the significant inbreeding within the population. The variety No.20, No.21 and No.31 exhibited a good improvement potential for breeding practice of sweet sorghum

145-153 Download
18

Mitreola lincangensis (Loganiaceae, Loganioideae), a new species from Yunnan, China


Zhangjian Shan, Ruinian Li, Bo Pan, Zejing Mu, Lan Cao, Zhaoqiang Hou and Xiaolang Du

Mitreola lincangensis (Loganiaceae, Loganioideae), a new species from Yunnan, China


ABSTRACT:

Mitreola lincangensis, a new species of Loganiaceae from Yunnan, Southwest China, is described and illustrated. This new species is close to M. reticulata and M. pedicellata in morphological characters, but differs by its terete stem, leaf blade elliptic to oblong, 1–1.6 × 3–5 cm, papyraceous, apex pungent, interpetiolar stipules lanceolate and capsules with two horns curved inwards

155-159 Download
19

Morpho-histological studies of three Romanian Solidago species


Luciana Dobjanschi, Eva Brigitta Patay, Lumini?a Fritea, Mircea T?ma?, Alexandru Jurca, Claudia Jurca and Mihaela Zdrinca

Morpho-histological studies of three Romanian Solidago species


ABSTRACT:

Solidago species, originally from North America, are successfully used in medicine due to their pharmacological effects. The most common part of Solidago plants used for its pharmacological effects is the herba, and in spite of their multiple uses, there is insufficient information about their taxonomical description in scientific literature. Due to this reason, the stems, leaves and flowers of Solidago virgaurea, Solidago gigantea and Solidago canadensis were studied more deeply by using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The detected morpho-histological features of Romanian Solidago species add new scientific data to the available records of the species. Compared with the known data, our results confirmed significant and distinctive features of these taxa which can be used as taxonomical markers for the identification of these selected species. In addition, in order to demonstrate the diuretic action of the three Solidago species, a comparative analysis was performed concerning the diuretic and saluretic action of the extracts and substances isolated from these plants

161-166 Download
20

The current and future potential geographical distribution of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China


Liu Xiao-Li, Li Hong-Qun, Wang Jian-Hua, Sun Xie-Ping, Fu Yong-Yao and Xing Li-Gang

The current and future potential geographical distribution of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China


ABSTRACT:

Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), originally from North America, has had an effect on the ecological environment, social economy and human health in the invaded area. The potential distributing area of common ragweed and the main factors that affect its distributions, were analyzed in China by Maxent model under the current and future conditions. Results showed that the accuracy of Maxent model is high in forecasting its potential distribution area, with an AUC value of 0.943 and 0.920 for model training and testing under the current conditions. The dominate factors were altitude, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation of driest month, precipitation of wettest month, isothermality, and precipitation of wettest quarter with thresholds of -50 to 300 m, 120 to 689 mm, 25 to 140 mm, 200 to 420 mm, 16 to 26 and 400 to 1200 mm. Under the current condition, 4.63% of the areas were identified as the optimum suitable areas of the ragweed, mainly located in south, north, east, central and northeast China, while moderately suitable area was 14.53%. To 50s and 70s of this century under 4 scenarios of RCPs, proportion of the suitable areas are predicted to changes to 7.97%~10.72?and 7.87?~9.30?while moderately suitable area to 11.04~13.00% and 12.38%~13.09%, respectively. The results show that to 50s and 70s of this century, the suitable distribution area increases gradually and moderately suitable areas declines, while between 50s and 70s, the suitable area fluctuates in the small-scale. However, total area of suitable and medium suitable areas almost not change, indicating that in the future ragweed stably spread in present optimum and moderately suitable regions.

167-172 Download
21

Variation in antioxidant activities and bioactive component contents of Salvia przewalskii maxim grown in China


Yuanyuan Jiang, Long Wang, Tao Wang, Li Zhang, Li Zeng, Qunqun Yang, Yonghong Zhou, Ruiwu Yang, Chunbang Ding and Xiaoli Wang

Variation in antioxidant activities and bioactive component contents of Salvia przewalskii maxim grown in China


ABSTRACT:

Salvia przewalskii Maxim is an abundant and endemic plant in China, and many of its secondary metabolites are important antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant property of the leaf and root extracts and the contents of eight main bioactive components, namely, salvianolic acids A and B, rosmarinic acid, protocatechualdehyde, tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone, and dihydrotanshinone I, in the leaf and root extracts were evaluated. Results provide scientific guidance on the efficient utilization of S. przewalskii as a source of natural antioxidants. The bioactive component concentrations and antioxidant activities of leaf and root extracts remarkably varied with season, and all extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity. Except for the superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity during the flowering stage, the root extract exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than the leaf extract in the same stage, which were mainly contributed by high hydrophilic component contents, such as rosmarinic acid, protocatechualdehyde, and salvianolic acid B. The correlation analysis results indicated that protocatechualdehyde was remarkably associated with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazide (DPPH) free radical-scavenging activity. Rosmarinic acid was notably associated with reducing power and DPPH and superoxide anion radical-scavenging activities. Salvianolic acid B was considerably associated with reducing power and DPPH free radical-scavenging activity. Therefore, given the high hydrophilic component contents, S. przewalskii leaves collected from the flowering period could also be used as very powerful herbal antioxidants, which also benefits the recycling of agricultural waste.

173-179 Download
22

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of AAO gene family in maize


De-Gong Wu, Yong Wang, Shou-Cheng Huang, Qiu-Wen Zhan, Hai-Bing Yu, Bao-Hong Huang, Xin-Xin Cheng, Wen-Yang Li and Jun-Li Du

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of AAO gene family in maize


ABSTRACT:

Ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) is a member of the multi-copper oxidase family and plays an important role in plant growth and development. The functional characteristics and expression patterns of the AAO gene family were analyzed using the maize (Zea mays L.) B73 genomic mRNA and amino acid database. Bioinformatics analysis of the whole genome AAO gene of maize had identified 36 AAO gene members, and predictive analysis was performed on the chromosomal location, the mode and time of gene differentiation, protein physicochemical properties and secondary structure, gene structure, conserved elements, phylogenetic tree and expression patterns of these genes. The results showed that 36 ZmAAO were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes. The genes differentiation was dominated by fragment replication, and the differentiation time was about 3.3-25.75 million years. ZmAAO proteins were mostly basic proteins. The protein secondary structure is mainly composed of irregular curls; The analysis of gene structure and conserved motifs showed that there was no significant difference in the number of introns in ZmAAO genes, and the amino acid sequence was highly conserved. The phylogenetic trees can be divided into 4 subfamilies, in which maize, rice and sorghum has a large number of orthologous genes and close genetic relationships. The expression pattern analysis found that the expression level of ZmAAO was different in different tissues, which indicates that it functions differently. After high temperature stress, the expression level of ZmAAO gene was significantly different in different tissues, indicating that some ZmAAO genes respond to high temperature stress. These results provide a theoretical basis for studying the biological function of this gene family and breeding high temperature resistant varieties in the future

181-190 Download
23

Epigenetic role of DNA methylation in hybrid vigor of cytoplasmic male sterility in sunflower


Omar Awad Kanoosh, Ayoob Obaid Alfalahi, Francis Oraha Jano and Hussam Fahim Najeeb Alawadi

Epigenetic role of DNA methylation in hybrid vigor of cytoplasmic male sterility in sunflower


ABSTRACT:

The molecular epigenetic relationship between DNA methylation and hybrid vigor using different sources of cytoplasmic male sterility of sunflower (six A-lines, three R-lines, and their 18 F1's) has been investigated. Molecular analysis of DNA methylation using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP), revealed that the used four primers succeeded in characterizing a total of 36 specific loci, 35 out of these loci found to be methylation-susceptible (MSL). Meanwhile, only 27 loci were polymorphic achieving were 77% polymorphism percentage of 77%. Differently methylated regions (DMRs) indicated a large convergence between A-lines and single hybrid populations, whereby the percentage of unmethylated state reached 23% and 22% in both populations, respectively. The highest percentage of non-methylated state (31%) was detected in R-lines, whereas the hybrids gave the highest percentage of hemimethylated state (13%) against their sterile maternal lines (A-lines) and fertility restorer lines (R-lines) which were 10% and 8%, respectively. A-lines showed the minimum percentage of the internal cytosine methylation (10%), where as, the parental testers and the resulted hybrids gained a slightly higher different percentage (14% and 13%, respectively). The epigenetic distinctness of sterile A-lines was clear as they showed the highest value for full methylation state (57%) against testers and diallel hybrids (46% and 50% respectively). Hybrids like A3XR2 showed a unique methylation pattern to occupy a single cluster. Hybrids with higher hybrid vigor (A2XR1, A4XR2, and A6XR1) gave the highest positive heterosis values for plant yield

191-196 Download
24

In vitro biological evaluation and DNA damage protection activities of Cotoneaster afghanicus G.Klotz and Tamarix arceuthoides Bunge extracts


Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Ghulam Mustafa, Shahzad Bashir, Muhammad Farrukh Tahir and Fozia Anjum

In vitro biological evaluation and DNA damage protection activities of Cotoneaster afghanicus G.Klotz and Tamarix arceuthoides Bunge extracts


ABSTRACT:

Two medicinal plants i.e. Cotoneaster afghanicus G.Klotz and Tamarix arceuthoides Bunge were collected from Quetta and Ziarat valleys of Province Balochistan, Pakistan. These plants were selected because their medicinal and nutraceutical effects were not reported before. n-hexane and chloroform extracts of C. afghanicus and T. arceuthoides were subjected to find antibacterial, thrombolytic, biofilm inhibition and DNA damage protection activities. Extracts from both plants showed antibacterial activity by forming inhibition zones of different sizes. Strong antibacterial effect was observed against Micrococcus spp. (source: poultry farm dust samples) which showed some resistance against antibiotic erythromycin used as standard but n-hexane extract of T. arceuthoides showed the highest activity of 27.25 ± 0.37 mm among the extracts. Biofilms are the external matrix of proteins and polysaccharides secreted by bacteria. This matrix provides extra protection to bacteria and therefore, difficult to eradicate. One Gram-positive and one Gram–negative bacterial strain were used to test biofilm inhibition activity. Both n-hexane and chloroform extracts of C. afghanicus showed prominent biofilm inhibition activity against S. aureus with a % inhibition of 59.72 ± 1.98% and 62.03 ± 1.83%. C. afghanicus n-hexane extract exhibited considerable thrombolytic effect of 52.92% clot lysis. Compounds having good antioxidant activities showed DNA damage protection present in higher amounts in n-hexane extract of T. arceuthoides

197-202 Download
25

Agro-morphological evaluation of lineseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm from Pakistan


Rizwan Taj Khan, Asma Hameed, Sania Begum and Syed Rizwan Abbas

Agro-morphological evaluation of lineseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm from Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The information about the diversity of the crop for different attributes is important for their effective utilization in the breeding programs.  The present investigation was carried out to characterize the 42 linseed (Linum usitatissimum L) genotypes by qualitative and quantitative agro-morphological traits and to describe the genetic variation. Eleven agro-morphological traits (germination days, initiation of flowers, days to maturity, height of plant, primary branches, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsules per plant, seed yield of each plant, thousand seeds weight, seed size and seed color) were recorded to evaluate phenotypic variations among linseed genotypes. Three genotypes viz., 020885, 020890 and 020870 contributed noteworthy results on the basis of morphological traits. The diverse and significant trait was obtained from genotype 021200 (Pak) among total genotypes; having maximum number of primary branches per plant (10) as well as maximum number of seeds per capsule (10.3). Whereas, genotype 020885(Pak) contributed for the maximum weight of seeds per plant and for maximum weight of 1000 seeds among all the genotypes. The results also showed that agro-morphological attributes grouped genotypes belonged to different regions grouped together in same clusters. Out of 42 genotypes, 39 genotypes were clustered in 4 clusters and remaining 3 genotypes viz., 021160, 021200 and 035127 did not place in any cluster as they found to be most phenotypically diverse from all other genotypes.  The information on the diversity and relationship with agro-morphological attributes will be helpful in the selection of populations in the breeding programs. 

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26

Pomological and chemical characteristics of apple genotypes in Simav District, Kutahya, Turkey


Nazan Korkmaz and Volkan Okatan

Pomological and chemical characteristics of apple genotypes in Simav District, Kutahya, Turkey


ABSTRACT:

This study was carried out to determine the pomological (physical) and chemical characteristics of some local apple genotypes grown in Simav district of Kutahya, Turkey. Due to the negative effects of climate change, the adaptability of local genotypes to the environmental stress conditions is becoming an important tool for reaching sustainability in production. However, it this case, the pomological and chemical characteristics of the local genotypes is becoming an important question for the consumers and have to be answered before the cultivation and marketing of the local genotypes. As a result of the surveys conducted in Simav district, six different apple genotypes were collected for analysis. According to the results obtained, the highest fruit weight was found in SIM-04 genotype as 205.34 g; and the lowest fruit weight was in the SIM-06 as 130.51 g. We found values of total phenols between 348.13 mg GAE/l (SIM-01) and 265.49 mg GAE/l (SIM-05). Total antioxidant activity was determined between 7.28 % (SIM-01) and 4.13 % (SIM-02). Total flavonoids were measured between 732.11 GAE/l (SIM-03) and 400.37 GAE/l (SIM-06). Malic acid is the most important acid in apple and genotypes malic acid content ranges between 3526.70 mg/100 ml (SIM-03) and 2448.51 mg/100 ml (SIM-06). Results suggested that there is a significant difference between the pomological and chemical characteristics of the genotypes and the selection of the most appropriate genotype is highly dependent upon the preferred characteristics of the apples. It can be recommended from the results that the SIM-04 is superior in terms of pomological characteristics. Moreover, when the preferred characteristics are the antioxidant activity and total phenols, SIM-01 genotype is superior.

 

211-216 Download
27

Investigation and comparison of anti-inflammatory activities of different extracts of Cymbopogon citratus using various in vivo models


Muhammad Abbas, Muhammad Tayyab Ansari, Saeed-Ul-Hassan and Arham Shabbir

Investigation and comparison of anti-inflammatory activities of different extracts of Cymbopogon citratus using various in vivo models


ABSTRACT:

Cymbopogon citratus has been commonly used by practitioners of traditional medicine in inflammatory diseases. The investigation and comparative anti-inflammatory activities were performed with different extracts of C. citratus i.e. methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane. The anti-inflammatory effects were determined using carrageenan, serotonin, and histamine. Further In vivo models like, xylene-induced ear edema, dextran-induced paw edema, and castor oil-induced diarrhea were also used for the confirmation of anti-inflammatory potential associated mechanism. Phytochemical constituents were determined through GC-MS analysis. Results showed inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema with all three extracts. Pre-treatment with plant extracts significantly inhibited paw edema induced by histamine and serotonin which further validated the anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, inflammatory edema induced by dextran and xylene were also found attenuated in experimental groups. We also found significant reduction in castor oil-induced diarrhea in extract treated groups indicating towards the possible inhibition of prostaglandins. Inhibition of these experimental models endorsed the suppression of autacoids as one of the mechanisms for the determination of anti-inflammatory effect. Extracts were also investigated for their potential toxicity, and established a safe dose upto 750 mg/kg body weight. Mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, caryophyllene, and 1,30-triacontanediol were identified in the highest amount through GC-MS analysis. In conclusion, this study showed that C. citratus possessed marked anti-inflammatory activity which might be ascribed to the suppression of autacoids.

217-226 Download
28

Multivariate analysis for yield and proline content in wheat under lab and field conditions


Mirza Faisal Qaseem, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Humaira Shaheen and Abdul Waheed

Multivariate analysis for yield and proline content in wheat under lab and field conditions


ABSTRACT:

Drought is major constraint to wheat yield and globally causes significant yield losses. Increasing wheat tolerance to drought by screening diverse germplasm and incorporation of tolerant genes is an important goal of wheat breeding program. The present study was aimed at screening drought tolerant genotypes from CIMMYT bread wheat nurseries using agro-traits and proline content. A panel of one hundred and eight comprising mixture of CIMMYT advanced wheat lines along with local high yielding varieties were evaluated for phenological and yield traits along with proline content under glasshouse and field conditions during two consecutive cropping years (i.e. 2014-15 and 2015-16). Results revealed that proline content of genotypes was increased under drought stress and had a weak correlation with yield and yield components. Using multivariate analysis technique, genotypes having higher yield and yield components under both stressed and non-stressed conditions were identified and 15 high yielding varieties were identified and recommended for future research. Thus, we can contemplate that it can be used as criteria for selecting tolerant genotypes under stressed condition. These can be incorporated in local breeding program for developing drought tolerant varieties.

227-239 Download
29

Assessing yield stability of wheat genotypes through various stability analyses models grown under different agro-ecological zones of Sindh


Khalil Ahmed Laghari, Mahboob Ali Sial, Saima Mir Arain, Muhammad Faheem and Shafique Ahmed Abro

Assessing yield stability of wheat genotypes through various stability analyses models grown under different agro-ecological zones of Sindh


ABSTRACT:

Eleven stability models including parametric and non-parametric were assessed for grain yield stability. Twelve advanced wheat genotypes along with two commercial check varieties, Kiran-95 and NIA-Amber were evaluated at seven different locations viz Umerkot, Badin,  Sakrand, Shahadadpur, Sanghar, Khairpur and Nausheroferoz during 2014-15 wheat growing season. The experimental layout was RCBD with three replication. Mean grain yield data showed that genotypes G4 (NIA-EST-28/11), G3, (AS-3) G5 (NIA-EST-92/9), G1 (AS-1) and G13 (Kiran-95) produced higher yield than other contesting genotypes across seven ecological zones. Results of stability analyses revealed that out 11 models studied G2, G6 were declared as stable by 8 models and G11 and G14 by 7 models. Thus, these genotypes could be more stable. Results of coefficeint of variation (CV%), deviation from regression(S2di), coefficients of determination (R2), stability variance (σi2) ,desirabiltiy index (DJi), wricke’s ecovalence (Wi) stability models, genotypic absolute rank Si(1) and genotypic variance Si(2) were closely similar in declaring genotypes as stable. However, the regression coefficient (bi) and superiority index (Pi) models picked high yielding genotypes as stable, which indicated that models for high yielding and low yielding genotypes may be assessed seprately for further confirmation of the results.

241-246 Download
30

Biomonitoring of heavy metals accumulation in wild plants growing at Soon valley, Khushab, Pakistan


Zafar Iqbal Khan, Ilker Ugulu, Asma Zafar, Naunain Mehmood, Humayun Bashir, Kafeel Ahmad and Madiha Sana

Biomonitoring of heavy metals accumulation in wild plants growing at Soon valley, Khushab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Ruminants’ health is badly affected by the hazardous effects of heavy metals. Due to the scarcity of water, feed production in many regions is very low, so mostly ruminant animals are fed with wild plants of the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metals concentration in native forage plants of Soon Valley, Khushab, Pakistan. Twenty forage plants, which are mostly consumed by the ruminants, were selected. The concentrations of heavy metals, cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results from heavy metals analysis revealed that the highest Co, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn contents were observed in Digitaria sanguinalis (0.30 mg/kg), Hordeum leporinum (15.64 mg/kg), Hordeum leporinum (36.46 mg/kg), Achnatherum hymenoides (26.04 mg/kg) and Hordeum leporinum (28.26 mg/kg), respectively. Statistically, the results of the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for Cu, Co, Fe, and Zn showed highly significant (p<0.05) difference in all plant samples. The results of this research showed that heavy metal accumulation values in the studied plants were in the normal natural concentration range

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31

Evaluation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) for production characteristics and symbiotic nitrogen-fixation potential


Mohammad Athar, Viliana Vasileva and Valentin Kosev

Evaluation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) for production characteristics and symbiotic nitrogen-fixation potential


ABSTRACT:

The adaptive properties of seven white lupin (Lupinus albus) varieties for the leaf number, plant fresh weight, root length, fresh root weight and number of nodules per plant were studied in a field trial at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. Varieties with high general and specific adaptive ability, relative stability and selection value were identified. The combination of stability and adaptability parameters and number of leaves per plant determined the KALI and Lucky801 varieties as promising, characterized by a high selection value of the genotype (SVG = 12.83, 11.48). In terms of fresh aboveground mass productivity PI533704 and KALI were of interest showing high stability and high biological potential. PI457938 was highly productive and responsive to improving growing conditions. PI457923 and PI457938 are characterized by a high selection value in respect to the fresh root weight (SVG = 1.11, 0.95) and nodule number (SVG = 5.58, 5.37). The PI457923, PI457938, KALI and Lucky801 varieties can be used in future selection programs to create varieties with higher leaf weight, higher aboveground and root mass and nodule number per plant

253-259 Download
32

Differential distribution of leaf rust across major wheat growing regions of Pakistan revealed through a three year surveillance effort


Muhammad Rameez Khan, Muhammad Imtiaz, Iqbal Munir, Izhar Hussain and Sajid Ali

Differential distribution of leaf rust across major wheat growing regions of Pakistan revealed through a three year surveillance effort


ABSTRACT:

Considering the important role of wheat leaf rust disease in reducing wheat yields, the present study was designed to assess the countrywide distribution of wheat leaf rust across Pakistan, based on the surveillance conducted during 2016, 2017 and 2018. A total of 1202 fields were surveyed from 95 districts over the three years. The surveillance revealed that both spatial and temporal variability were present across Pakistan in terms of incidence and severity of leaf rust. The disease was more prevalent in Sindh and Punjab than other parts, with little infestation in the northern cold wheat growing regions. The disease was more prevalent in 2017 than both 2016 and 2018. In the Sindh province, 20% fields surveyed over three years had the severe leaf rust infestation (with >60% severity), while in Punjab the disease was absent in more than 95% fields. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Kashmir, the disease was detected in less than 1% of the total surveyed fields. Our results revealed that among the four provinces and the Kashmir state, leaf rust was a major problem in Sindh and Southern Punjab, while over the three years, it was more prevalent in 2017. Among the major cultivated varieties surveyed, severe infestation was observed for wheat varieties Galaxy-2013, Morocco, TD_1, Sehar, Yecora, Aas-11, Inqilab-91, Kiran-95, Shafaq, Sarsabz, TJ-83, Marvi, Sassi and some local lines. The information should be useful for both breeders, farmers and extension workers to devise a better leaf rust management strategy considering the relative regional risk of the disease.

261-266 Download
33

Yield traits of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids according to the difference in their growth stages


Ismail Demir

Yield traits of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids according to the difference in their growth stages


ABSTRACT:

The responses of sunflower hybrids to environmental conditions during vegetative and generative growth periods are different; these differences play an important role in seed yield. In this study, dry matter accumulation, stem diameter, number of leaves and plant height data of seven commonly used sunflower hybrids grown under irrigated conditions were regularly collected during growth periods uptill the harvest season. The effects of growth stage differences on yield traits were investigated. Dry matter accumulation of hybrids continued till the back of head yellowing period and the highest dry matter accumulation was obtained in seed filling period (R6) as 47.24 g m-2 day-1. Dry matter losses of hybrids were at the highest level following the R7 period due to the fall of leaves which lost their functions, and dry matter content in R7 period was 17.04 t ha-1, while it was decreased to 11.38 t ha-1 at harvest. Approximately, 5.66 t ha-1 dry matter loss was added to soil as organic matter. To conclude, LG 5585 hybrid had the biggest head diameter, highest number of seeds in a head, plant seed weight and 1000-seed weight, seed yield (3957.8 kg ha-1), harvest index (45.75%) and, consequently, the highest oil yield (1820.6 kg ha-1), suggesting that this hybrid could be used in irrigated lands for seed and oil production

267-272 Download
34

Biosynthesis of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae using milk powder as substrate


Ikram-Ul-Haq, Shanza Ashraf, Ali Nawaz, Yesra Arshad and Hamid Mukhtar

Biosynthesis of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae using milk powder as substrate


ABSTRACT:

The purpose of the current study was to produce highly active and stable β-galactosidase by using submerged fermentation employing indigenously isolated fungi. Different soil and food samples were collected from various waste lands and restaurants kitchens of Lahore for fungal strains isolation. X-gal based screening resulted in the isolation of 42 β-galactosidase producing fungal strains. Out of these, highest production (112.34± 0.23 U/mL/min) of β-galactosidase was shown by fungal isolate IIB-26 that was further subjected to 18S rDNA sequencing and was identified as Aspergillus oryzae. This work also focused on optimizing different fermentation parameters to enhance the productivity of β-galactosidase. The maximum productivity of β-galactosidase i.e. 112.34±0.23 U/mL/min was attained using soya bean meal medium of pH 4 after 120 hours of incubation, at 30oC, using soya bean meal as carbon and urea as nitrogen source when it was inoculated with 3% inoculum of A. oryzae conidial suspension. The biosynthesis of enzyme was increased 3 times after optimization of fermentation parameters. The present work would help in future to decline the incidence of hypolactasia among Asian people by developing lactase supplements

273-279 Download
35

Green synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of zinc nanoparticles from flower extract of Brassica oleracea italica


Ibrar Khan, Mamoona Jehanzeb, Rameen Nadeem, Akhtar Nadhman, Sadiq Azam, Inam Ullah and Farhan Ahmad

Green synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of zinc nanoparticles from flower extract of Brassica oleracea italica


ABSTRACT:

The current work focused on green synthesis of Zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) using the aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea italica inflorescence acting as a reducing agent. The characterization of ZnNPs was done by UV visible spectrophotometer for confirmation of the zinc nanoparticles formation. Other techniques were also done including SEM for morphology, XRD for crystalline structure, EDX for elemental analysis, FTIR for functional groups determination and TGA for mass analysis. Spherical shape nanoparticles were found with size ranging between 100-500nm by SEM analysis. From analysis of TGA it was elucidated that the compound is thermally sensitive to temperature as weight reduction was observed with rise in temperature. The ZnNPs showed low activity against Shigella dysenteria, while a good antifungal activity was found against Paeciolmyces fulvus (70%). Positive results were achieved against blood groups O+, O-, AB- and B- while performing the haemagglutination activity. In phytotoxic activity, more damaged plants were observed at low concentration of ZnNPs. From the above study, it is concluded that the selected plant can be used for nanoparticles synthesis for achieving good antifungal, haemagglutination and phytotoxic effects.

281-286 Download
36

Comparative effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi against okra mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis


Anam Mehwish Khanzada, Muhammad Ali Khanzada, Rehana Naz Syed and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi

Comparative effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi against okra mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis


ABSTRACT:

Microbial formulations prepared from entomopathogenic fungi emerging as the effective alternate of chemical pesticides against different crop pests. They cause lethal infections and regulate insects and mites population in nature by epizootics and considered as primary candidates for mycoinsecticides. In this study, we evaluated five species of entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria farinosa, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium lecanii against Phenacoccus solenopsis on okra crop. Three concentrations calculated on the basis of previous study (LD50, ten times higher and ten times lower than LD50) of each fungal biocontrol agent were applied to okra plants infested with mealybugs. In the pot experiment, the higher dose of M. anisopliae (7.063×108) and B. bassiana (1.37×108) followed by P. lilacinus (6.615×107) were highly effective in controlling the pest population, they brought 83.7, 80 and 78.7% reduction, respectively. Second most effective treatments were a higher dose of V. lecanii (1.69×107) and a medium dose of P. lilacinus (6.615×106), brought 69.4 and 53% reduction in mealybugs. Among all entomopathogenic fungi, I. farinosa was the least effective; its lower, medium and higher doses caused only 20.7, 48.5 and 51.6% reduction, respectively. In field trial, higher doses of all biocontrol agents were more effective than their medium and lower doses. Whereas, maximum yield was recorded in the higher (7.063×108) and medium dose of (7.063×107) of M. anisopliae followed by a higher (1.37×108) and medium (1.37×107) dose of B. bassiana. This study provides new opportunities for effective and eco-friendly control measures of mealybugs.

287-292 Download
37

Influence of phosphatic fertilizer on growth, yield and bacterial abundance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes


Qurban Ali Panhwar, Amanat Ali, Nizamuddin Depar and Muhammad Yousuf Memon

Influence of phosphatic fertilizer on growth, yield and bacterial abundance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes


ABSTRACT:

Rice is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and has high nutritional food value. A field study was laid to assess the effect of phosphatic fertilizer on microbial root colonization and yield of different rice genotypes. The soil of field experiment was moderately saline, low in OM and nitrogen, and inadequate in phosphorus. Three rice genotypes MR219-9, Shandar and DR-92 were transplanted at three different rates of phosphate (30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 ha-1). The experiment was conducted in split plot design with three replications. The abundance of general bacteria, nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) was assessed in rhizosphere of rice plants. The maximum general bacterial abundance (7.54 log cfu g-1 soil) and PSB abundance (6.97 log cfu g-1 soil) was recorded in soil under plants of Shandar genotype while the most N2 fixing bacterial abundance (6.26 log cfu g-1 soil) prevailed in soil under rice genotype MR219-9 at 30 kg P2O5 ha-1. Among rice genotypes, Shandar showed excellent enhancement in growth and yield at the 90 kg P2O5 ha-1. The maximum plant height (87.26 cm), root length (9.25 cm), number of tillers per plant (16.60 plant-1), number of panicles per plant (15.76), panicle length (25.20 cm) and 1000 grain weight (22.16 g) were observed in Shandar genotype at 90 kg P2O5. The highest grain (5.53 t ha-1) and straw yield (12.23 t ha-1) was also recorded in Shandar at 90 kg P2O5. The abundant microbial population prevailed in rhizosphere of all rice genotypes at low levels of phosphatic fertilizer application. However, the microbial populations varied among rice genotypes at different P levels that indicated the root colonization of rice that may enhance rice growth and productivity with low input of chemical fertilizers

293-300 Download
38

Morphological and molecular markers based screening of maize hybrids against northern corn leaf blight


Sadaf Naeem, Muhammad Tahir, Kiramat Khan, Amjad Hassan and Rafiq Ahmad

Morphological and molecular markers based screening of maize hybrids against northern corn leaf blight


ABSTRACT:

Northern Corn Leaf Blight (NCLB) is a fungal disease and it is a stumbling block in maize production. Moreover, conventional field evaluation of a large number of maize hybrids for NCLB is expensive as well as time consuming. This study was done to evaluate initially the 36 maize hybrids in field condition for NCLB resistant and agronomic parameters were measured. Twelve best maize hybrids resistant to NCLB were screened at molecular level by using specific primers of Ht1, Ht2, and Ht3 and HtN genes. Finally, we compared molecular data with morphological data to pinpoint the maize hybrids with enhanced resistance against NCLB. The results showed that germination of 36 hybrids including three check hybrids (commercial ones) were not statistically different except pwx-131-6. Hybrid FRW2 x PSE.3-157-5-4-2 showed maximum yield 11.474 tons per hectare followed by check hybrid CH-III (30 k08) with 11.018 tons per hectare among all finally 12 selected hybrids. Disease ranking showed that both above high yielding hybrids were resistant to NCBL. In addition, both hybrids showed the presence of all resistant genes Ht1, Ht2, Ht3 and HtN that could be involved in resistance to NCLB. Among the commercial hybrids, CH-II(BABAR) was moderately resistant to NCLB having disease ranking 2 and all the resistant genes Ht1, Ht2, Ht3 and HtN were absent in this commercial hybrid. Globally, 4 maize hybrids i.e. PSEV.3-15-5-4-2 × PK9, FRW2 x PSEV.3-120-2-3-2, PSEV.3-157-5-4-3 x (FRW3x FRW6)sp out of 12 maize hybrids were moderately resistant while all others were resistant according to disease ranking but variation in resistant genes were observed in all maize hybrids. The morphological and molecular based screening use in this study can be used in other plants that are sensitive to NCLB particularly using Ht1, Ht2, Ht3 and HtN genes

301-308 Download
39

In silico exploitation of antiviral phytochemicals against dengue


Faisal Nouroz, Madiha Mehboob, Tibgha Mobin and Sajid Khan

In silico exploitation of antiviral phytochemicals against dengue


ABSTRACT:

Phytochemicals are plants natural compounds, ethno-pharmacologically used as anti-hepatitis, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal and anti-viral agents. Computer-aided drug designing (CADD) is flourishing technique nowadays and various natural plant products or phytochemicals are exploited to design potential drugs against various diseases. Dengue fever is caused by the dengue virus (DANV) and is a tropical mosquito-borne infectious disease. DANV infections are among the most important mosquito-infected diseases that are widespread in subtropical and tropical countries (>100). Currently, the dengue fever is becoming a serious health risk. There is need of treatment in contrary to the growing issues of dengue fever and the presence of resistant mutants of DANV in the world. In present research, potential and beneficial anti-dengue drug from plants natural compounds is proposed using CADD, which requires the utilization of information (Biochemical) of ligand-receptor interaction in turn to assume drug treatments. To find biochemical information, docking interactions of selected ligands with E-glycoprotein (4UT6) active site was done which showed effective results against the DANV. Ligand-receptor docking were interpreted by different interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ionic and hydrophobic interactions. Based on the interaction assessment and binding energies of the compounds, one was considered as a “lead compound”. Six compounds were placed with in the active site of E-glycoprotein (PDB id: 4UT6). Ligands interaction with the active site of E-glycoprotein was assessed. On the bases of high binding interactions and activity, the assessed drug compounds will be proposed in the laboratory as a future plan for clinical testing and synthesis against Dengue virus.

309-319 Download
40

Amelioration of systemic resistance in tomato against root rotting fungi by the endophytic Trichoderma species


Shumaila Moin, Afshan Rahman, Gulnaz Parveen, Farzana Korejo, Hafiza Asma Shafique, Rawish Zehra, Viqar Sultana and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Amelioration of systemic resistance in tomato against root rotting fungi by the endophytic Trichoderma species


ABSTRACT:

Endophytes are bacteria and fungi that are contained entirely within the plant tissue, are non-pathogenic and may be mutualistic.  Beneficial interaction between endophytic fungi and plant have been reported including plant growth promotion and suppression of plant pathogens. In this study out of 88 plant samples endophytic Trichoderma spp., were isolated from 20 samples, belonging to 13 plant species. In dual culture Trichoderma either caused growth inhibition of root rotting fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and F.oxysporum or parasitized their hyphae. Culture filtrate of selected Trichoderma isolates showed significant antifungal activity against root rotting fungi besides causing mortality of juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica, root knot nematode. In screen house experiments application of aqueous suspension of endophytic Trichoderma species alone or with endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas in coconut coir amended soil significantly suppressed root rotting fungi of tomato.  Application of endophytes also improved plant growth by increasing plant height and fresh shoot weight in many cases. Endophytic Trichoderma and or fluorescent Pseudomonas improved status of plant resistant markers like salicylic acid and antioxidant activity which were further improved in coconut coir amended soil.

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41

Arbuscular mycorrhiza protects the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells and photochemical activity of Lycium barbarum under salt stress


Hongguang Liu, Yajun Wang, Ming Tang and Hui Chen

Arbuscular mycorrhiza protects the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells and photochemical activity of Lycium barbarum under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Salt stress is restricting crop productivity worldwide, especially in arid and semiarid areas. The plants in salinized areas have various strategies to adapt to salt stress, including forming mutual symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Due to the ubiquity of AMF in terrestrial ecosystem and their performance in aiding host plant to face to the environmental challenge, they can be a potential facilitator for reclaiming salinized soils. Plants inhabiting in salinized soils suffer from structural damage due to osmotic and oxidative pressure induced by salt stress, however, the role of AMF played in the ultrastructural changes of host plants is less clear. Lycium barbarum (Goji) is a tree species with medicinal value which usually suffers from salt stress. Here we investigated the impacts of inoculating Diversispora versiformis on the ultrastructure and chlorophyll fluorescence of mesophyll cells of Goji under salt stress. The extent of plasmolysis in mesophyll cells of Goji inoculated with D. versiformis was lower compared with control under 200 mmol/L NaCl. The chloroplasts of non-mycorrhizal Goji were swollen, with distorted thylakoids and large gap between chloroplast membrane and plasma membrane under salt stress. However, mycorrhizal Goji had integrated chloroplast and well organized grana, the gap between chloroplast membrane and plasma membrane was smaller than control under salt stress. Concurrently, the chlorophyll fluorescence performance of mycorrhizal Goji suffered less than non-mycorrhizal Goji under 200 mmol/L NaCl. Collectively, our results demonstrate that AMF could confer higher salt tolerance to Goji through protecting the ultrastructure and photochemical activity.

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42

Colonization of Chromolaena and tobacco by Pseudomonas parafulva Ros-1


Raymond Oriebe Anyasi, Harrison Ifeanyichukwu Atagana and Rene Sutherland

Colonization of Chromolaena and tobacco by Pseudomonas parafulva Ros-1


ABSTRACT:

This study sought to determine the effectiveness of colonization of bacterial endophytes following inoculation of the cells in plants. Different methods of inoculation including seed immersion, root immersion, and foliar spraying were studied on Chromolaena odorata and Nicotiana tobacum for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively. This was to ascertain whether Pseudopodium parafulva is an endophyte of both sets of plants. The foliar parts of the plants were assessed post inoculation (PI) for their colonization by the bacteria. Significant differences at p<0.05 of colonization were established by the different inoculation methods. Foliar spray demonstrated the highest colonization in both Chromolaena and tobacco plants, followed by root immersion. Leaf inoculation in tobacco plants demonstrated a positive colonization which was not significant. However, seed inoculation provided colonization in Chromolaena plant at 10, 20 and 30 days PI at a frequency lower than that of tobacco. With root immersion in Chromolaena, there was colonization at 10 days PI, no colonization at 20 days PI, but colonization re-appeared at 30 days PI. The growth index measured demonstrated a positive relationship between the inoculation of the endophyte and the growth parameters which included stem length and germination rate. This study, therefore, showed that the bacteria strain P. Parafulva Ros-1 was an endophyte of tobacco and Chromolaena plants, and also that foliar spraying was an effective method of inoculating endophytes in both plants.

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43

Effects of cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp. and green microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana as biofertilizers on in vitro seed priming and seedling growth of some economically important vegetables from Pakistan


Yasmeen Rehmat, Rukhsana Jabeen, Shaista Hameed, Muhmmad Ejaz and Manzoor Iqbal Khattak

Effects of cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp. and green microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana as biofertilizers on in vitro seed priming and seedling growth of some economically important vegetables from Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp. and green microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana as biofertilizers, play an important role in agriculture development. Due to a lack of information concerning microalgae as biofertilizers in crop production, the present research aimed to evaluate the possibility of increasing growth using microalgae as biofertilizers on seed germination of four commercially important vegetables i.e., radish (Raphanus sativus) subsp. sativus, spinach (Spinacia oleracea), turnip (Brassica rapa) subsp. rapa and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). In the current study the fresh biomass of cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp. and green microalga, C. sorokiniana was used as bio-fertilizers to note the effect on seed germination of four vegetables. The In vitro effects of bio-fetilizers were also noted on the different growth parameters i.e., germination percentage, days to germination (50%), plumule length, radical length, fresh weight and dry weight using Randomize Complete Designed (RCD) with factorial arrangement. The results compared with control showed an improved germination percentage using Leptolyngbya sp. (83.17%) and C. sorokiniana (80.47%). Both strains exhibited early germination (4.50 days) while C. sorokiniana showed the maximum plumule (33.88cm), radical length (4.46cm), fresh (1.38g) and dry weight (0.0708g) associated with Leptolyngbya sp.  The treatment with B. rapa seed germination was 98.67% and took 1.78 days to germinate. The lowest germination (34.44%) was recorded in S. oleracea and took 6.56 days to germinate. After applying Leptolyngbya sp. on B. rapa and T. foenum-graecum seeds indicated the highest seed germination (99.67%). While B. rapa seeds germinated after one day while primed with C. sorokiniana. The maximum increase over check of germination percentage was observed in Leptolyngbya sp. (11.63%) and C. sorokiniana (8.60%). Both strains improved early germination (3.78%), plumule length (33.88%), radical length (60.31%), fresh weight (7.97%) and dry weight (5.79%).

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44

The halophytic plant, Suaeda vermiculata Forssk extracts reduce the inflamed paw edema and exert potential antimicrobial activity


Mohsen S. Al-Omar, Mohammed S.M. Sajid, Nada S. Alnasyan, Basma S. Almansour, Rana M. Alruthaya, Riaz A. Khan, Salman A. A. Mohammed, Albaraa M. Al-Damigh and Hamdoon A. Mohammed

The halophytic plant, Suaeda vermiculata Forssk extracts reduce the inflamed paw edema and exert potential antimicrobial activity


ABSTRACT:

Suaeda vermiculata is a halophytic plant widely distributed in central Saudi Arabia and traditionally used as a remedy for hepatitis, jaundice and viral infections. The study aimed to inspect the phytochemical constituents and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of S. vermiculata different extracts against broad-spectrum microbial strains collected from human blood and urine samples. Anti-inflammatory activity of S. vermiculata is also investigated for the first time in this study. Phytochemical constituents of S. vermiculata extracts were investigated by chemical tests and by using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Agar diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods were used to estimate the antimicrobial activity of S. vermiculata extracts. Anti-inflammatory effect of plant extracts was evaluated by Formalin-induced edema in rats’ paw.  Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and sterols in the plant extracts. Tannins and flavonoids were strongly detected in ethanol and ethyl acetate while steroids were abundant in chloroform and n-hexane extracts. Among all extracts, the ethanol extract of S. vermiculata showed the best inhibition zone diameter (IZD) and MIC values against Candida albicans and Klebsiella pneumoniae with 12mm IZD (MIC 8.75mg/ml) and 13mm IZD (MIC 35mg/ml), respectively.  Also, ethanol extract inhibits the growth of E. coli and Proteus vulgaris at MIC equal to 17.5mg/ml. All S. vermiculata extracts showed anti-inflammatory effect when they were compared with untreated vehicle group. Whereas, the anti-inflammatory activity observed for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were higher than diclofenac standard during all the intervals of the study. Ethanol extract of S. vermiculata showed potential antimicrobial activity with a remarkable anti-inflammatory effect which might be accounted for the phenolic and flavonoid constituents of the plant.

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45

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory studies on Tradescantia zebrina


Navid Baghalpour, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Nima Naderi, Tahereh Hosseinabadi, Yasaman Taheri, Javad Mahroo-Bakhtiyari, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Ali Talha Khalil and Javad Sharifi-Rad

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory studies on Tradescantia zebrina


ABSTRACT:

Herein, we report phytochemical investigation and In vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential of Tradescantia zebrina L. extracts. T. zebrina belongs to the family Commelinaceae and has important therapeutic uses like conjunctivitis, hemorrhoid, and superficial wound dressings in folklore medicine. In phytochemical screening, detection tests for saponins, tannins, terpenes, flavonoids, and alkaloids were performed. Folin-Ciocalteau based procedure was for total phenolic content quantification. Three fractions, including ethyl acetate, n-hexane and chloroform, fractions, were prepared from the ethanolic extract. A total of 124 Wistar rats were treated with the ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), fractions (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), and normal saline for negative control and Diclofenac (25 mg/kg) for positive control group by oral gavage route. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties were established using the formalin and carrageenan tests, respectively. Also, the acute toxicity of the ethanolic extraction was analyzed on ten rats. The ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions decreased the licking of the foot significantly in the formalin test (p<0.001). Treatment with the ethanolic extract decreased the paw edema caused by carrageenan at the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg relative to control group significantly (p<0.001). Similar results were obtained at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg. The dose of 100 mg/kg of the ethyl acetate fraction showed a major effect in the carrageenan paw edema test. There was no mortality in the acute toxicity test which indicates its non-toxic effect at this stage. The result of the total phenolic content assessment showed that 76.88% phenolic content as μg gallic acid equivalents/mg of the extract. To conclude, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were revealed by different fractions T. zebrina and can be studied further for potential isolation of bioactive compounds

357-365 Download
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