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Year 2022 , Volume  54, Issue 4
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Rice adapts to alkali stress by microstructural changes

 


Haixin Zhao, Xiaodong Du, Shuqiang Chen, Limin Yang, Feng Peng, Xiaoqun Huang, Wendong Ma, Haiyan Zheng, Yongsheng Cai and Guojun Pan

Rice adapts to alkali stress by microstructural changes

 


ABSTRACT:

Response of four rice varieties namely Suijing 5, Longjing 27, Fujisawa 138, and Koshihikari to salt-alkali stress can assist in understanding the physiological and molecular mechanisms of salt-alkali stress. The sensitivity differences of microstructural changes under alkali stress between different rice varieties were examined and found that the alignment and integrity of root cells of different varieties of rice were compromised by alkali stress. The root cells of Longjing 27 were more sensitive to alkali stress, and its morphology more easily changed. In different rice varieties the formation of branch roots, the proportion of vascular columns and large vascular bundles in the root cross-section were increased along with the increase of the diameter of the vascular column and large vascular bundles, and maintained consistent transport of nutrients to compensate for the root function. In all resistance to alkali stress was chloroplasts and mitochondria were also affected by alkali stress, while Suijing 5 was more resistant to alkali stress. Chloroplast structure and function in Suijing 5 were relatively intact. Suijing 5 could still complete photosynthesis but could not complete the transport of synthetic products. The structure and function of mitochondria and chloroplasts in the other three rice species were severely impaired, and photosynthesis and product transportation were blocked. Suijing 5 was the best alkali resistant rice variety according to microstructural analysis.

 

 

1181-1190 Download
2

Assessing phytotoxic impact of Melilotus indicus L. on the germination and seedling emergence of Sorghum bicolor L. under various saline conditions


Hafiz Haider Ali, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Muhammad Aasim, Muhammad Azhar Nadeem, Zubair Ismail, Ali Raza, Kamran Ikram, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah and Muhammad Zahid Mumtaz

Assessing phytotoxic impact of Melilotus indicus L. on the germination and seedling emergence of Sorghum bicolor L. under various saline conditions


ABSTRACT:

Sorghum is a very important cereal crop over the world and its average production is very low as compared to its potential yield due to the weed infestation and salinity. Therefore, a lab and greenhouse oriented study was carried out to assess the allelopathic impact of yellow sweet clover on the germination and seedling growth of sorghum at different saline conditions. In laboratory experiment, the aqueous extract of four different plant parts of Melilotus indicus (leaves, stem, root and whole plant) at different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%). While in greenhouse soil bioassay, three different factors such as residue concentrations (0, 2 and 4%), salt concentrations (0, 4 and 8%) and decomposition period (2 and 4 weeks) were studied with completely randomized design with factorial arrangement having five replicates in lab experiment. Results indicated maximum inhibitory effect on seed germination was recoded when 20% extract of M. indicus was applied and maximum seedling growth was noted at control (distilled water). In the case of M. indicus parts, highest inhibition was noted when whole plant part water extract was applied at 20% concentration. In second greenhouse experiment, the results showed that M. indicus plant materials mixed with the soil and left for the period of two weeks for the fully decomposition caused non-significant impact on the seed germination of sorghum. 19.72%, 5.15% and 4.23% increase in germination, root growth and shoot length was noticed with the M. indicus root extract as compared to the whole plant extract. However, saline conditions showed inhibitory effect on germination when its level was increased. Germination and seedling emergence of sorghum significantly affected by the allelopathic potential of M. indicus and it was declined by the gradually increased of salt contractions in the soil

1191-1198 Download
3

24-epibrassinolide modulates biomass production, gas exchange characteristics and inorganic nutrients in canola (Brassica napus L.) under salt stress


Shahid Mehmood, Ejaz Hussain Siddiqi, Izah Nawaz and Noreen Nasir

24-epibrassinolide modulates biomass production, gas exchange characteristics and inorganic nutrients in canola (Brassica napus L.) under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Present research work was designed to appraise the impact of exogenously applied 24-Epibrassinolide (24-EpiBL) in two canola varieties (Brassica napus L.) under salt stress. Seed of both varieties (Cyclone and Dunkled) were acquired from Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI), Faislabad, Pakistan. Ten healthy seeds of each variety were sowed in plastic pots and after 15 days of seed germination, salinity stress was applied at (0 mM and 100 mM NaCl) in the solution of Hoagland nutrients. After salt treatment, 20 days old plants were foliar sprayed with 24-EpiBL at different levels (0, 0.5 and 1 µmol 24-EpiBL). Salinity stress remarkably declined biomass production, gas exchange parameters, WUE, RWC, root and shoot mineral nutrients (K+ and Ca2+) and their ratios while conc. of  Na+ and Cl- ions were improved in root and shoots of each variety. Foliar applied 24-EpiBL lessened the adversities of salinity stress and upgraded the values of the root, shoot length and dry mass, intercellular CO2 conc., rate of photosynthetic activity, rate of transpiration, stomatal conductance, water-use efficiency, leaf relative water content, mineral contents (Ca2+, K+) and nutrients ratios in root and shoots under control and salt-affected situations

1199-1209 Download
4

Comparative phenotyping assessment of four different oil seed cultivars using stress-induced physiological traits in water deficit environment


Basit Ali and Zamin Shaheed Siddiqui

Comparative phenotyping assessment of four different oil seed cultivars using stress-induced physiological traits in water deficit environment


ABSTRACT:

Comparative phenotyping assessment of four oilseed cultivars, two soybean (RAWAL and AJMERI) and sunflower (SF0054 and SF0024) in a water deficit environment, was studied. Phenotyping was performed using stress-induced physiological traits. Results depict that drought stress decreased the stomatal conductance, relative water content (RWC), and photosystem II quantum efficiencies of considered plants. Among the tested cultivars, SF0054 (sunflower) and AJMERI (soybean) have higher RWC, stomatal conductance, performance index (PIABS), the quantum yield of PSII (Fv-Fm ratio), and photochemical quenching (qP) comparing SF0024 and RAWAL under drought stress environment. Furthermore, SF0054 and AJMERI exhibited greater antioxidant enzyme activities and lesser H2O2 production under a drought stress environment. Therefore, these two cultivars could be used in crop improvement via plant breeding and genomics

1211-1219 Download
5

Ion homeostasis and osmoregulation in Tamarix dioica Roxb. ex Roth through modulation of structural and functional features


Zaher Uddin Babar, Iftikhar Ahmad, Mansoor Hameed and Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad

Ion homeostasis and osmoregulation in Tamarix dioica Roxb. ex Roth through modulation of structural and functional features


ABSTRACT:

Salt indicator species inhabiting wild habitats could provide important information regarding salinity-tolerance mechanisms in plants. In this study, Tamarix dioica populations were collected from saline habitats all over the Punjab i.e., from Khabeki Lake, Uchali Lake, Kallar Kahar Lake, Katha Saghral, Lilla range, Kirrana hills, and Faisalabad. Their salinity tolerance potential was accessed based on growth, photosynthetic pigments, oxidative stress indicators, anti-oxidative enzyme activities, and anatomical attributes. Many populations of Tamarix dioica maintained chlorophyll contents at high salinities. Higher accumulation of proline, glycine betaine, free amino acids, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, and ascorbic acid contributed to growth maintenance under saline environments. An increase in the shoot potassium, calcium, and magnesium was consistent with a concurrent decrease in shoot sodium. Among the anatomical features, an increase in root epidermis thickness, cortex, endodermis, phloem, vascular bundle, metaxylem, pith, and sclerification was recorded intolerant populations. Similarly, stem epidermis, cortex, metaxylem, phloem, and vascular bundle areas increased under salt stress. All these features differentially enabled T. dioica populations to survive in highly saline environments.

 

1221-1230 Download
6

Phytoremediation capabilities and antioxidant enzymes’ activities of two halophytic shrubs Capparis decidua and Haloxylon salicornicum from Cholistan desert, Pakistan under salinity stress


Muhammad Rafay, Muhammad Madnee, Muhammad Irfan Ashraf, Muhammad Abid, Muhammad Usman Ghaffar, Zaffar Malik, Hamza Basit and Shahriyar Ul Hassan

Phytoremediation capabilities and antioxidant enzymes’ activities of two halophytic shrubs Capparis decidua and Haloxylon salicornicum from Cholistan desert, Pakistan under salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

Salt-affected Soils hindering plant biomass production is the burning issue of the world to meet demands for food, fiber and shelter. Recent study was conducted to evaluate two halophytes shrubs species Capparis decidua and Haloxylon salicornicum towards salinity stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities and phytoremediation capabilities (Na+ & K+ concentration) were measured. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse at different salinity levels (0, 70, 140 and 210 mM NaCl). One year old seedlings of Capparis decidua and Haloxylon salicornicum grown through cuttings in the polythene tubes in the nursery area were shifted to hydroponic medium for various parameters. The results revealed that under highly saline conditions H. salicornicum was found more salt tolerant and produced maximum number of leaves (27) than C. decidua (19) at 210 mM NaCl. Chlorophyll contents in C. decidua and H. salicornicum increased till 140 mM NaCl (0.24) and (0.48) and decreased (0.06) and (0.33) at 210 mM NaCl respectively. Uptake of Na+ concentration was increased with the elevated salinity treatments while K+ concentrations were decreased in both species. Na+ concentrations were found maximum in H. salicornicum (60117ppm) at 210 mM NaCl while it was (23225ppm) at 0 mM NaCl. Antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased with increasing salinity while the Catalase (CAT) activity was at highest value at 0 mM NaCl (37.66) and its value decrease with the increasing salinity in both species. The results concluded that the H. salicornicum is more salt tolerant species. Both species can be used for phytoremediation of salinity from saline soils and successful revegetation of deserts.

 

1231-1236 Download
7

Effects of hormones (IBA & IAA) on the propagation of Himalayan yew in Pakistan: a conservation approach


Javaid Iqbal, Bushra Khan, Sardar Khan, Nasreen Ghaffar, Ishaq Ahmad Mian, Iqbal Ahmed, Nowsher Yousaf, Aamir Iqbal, Iftikhar Ahmad and Sadaf Manzoor

Effects of hormones (IBA & IAA) on the propagation of Himalayan yew in Pakistan: a conservation approach


ABSTRACT:

Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana) is one of the most important medicinal plant species for cancer treatment. The tree contains anticancer drug ‘Taxol’ which is mainly used for the treatment of ovarian, breast, and AIDS-related cancers. However, Himalayan yew is an endangered tree species and requires high conservation attention due to declining population. This study was therefore conducted for the propagation of Himalayan yew by the regeneration of fresh stem cuttings using hormone treatments of Indole Butyric acid (IBA) and Indole acetic acid (IAA) at 2000 to 7000 ppm concentrations. A total of 3840 stem cuttings were treated with IBA and IAA and grown in polythene bags containing soil at Lalku valley, Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The influence of IBA treatment at 7000 ppm concentration showed survival of 85.22% (average number of roots=10.4, average length of roots=15.5 cm, average number of leaves=92.4 and average number of sprouts=3.3) while IAA showed survival of 81.11% (average number of roots=9.1, average length of roots=14.6 cm, average number of leaves=84.0 and average number of sprout=3.0) at the same concentration. The lowest survival of 40-45 % (average number of roots=4.2, average length of roots=8.0 cm, average number of leaves=32.2, average number of sprouts=1.7) was observed for the control stem cuttings. This study recommends the application of IBA (7000 ppm) as a better hormone for the conservation and propagation of Himalayan yew.

 

1237-1243 Download
8

Mutagenesis with EMS is an alternative to recombinant breeding for inducing allelic diversity in cotton


Saba Zafar, M Atif Iqbal, Ammad Abbas and Mehboob-Ur-Rahman

Mutagenesis with EMS is an alternative to recombinant breeding for inducing allelic diversity in cotton


ABSTRACT:

Present study was conducted to develop and characterize 131 G. hirsutum mutant lines along with the wild type (FH-Lalazar) for plant height (PH), ginning out turn (GOT) percentage, upper half mean length (UHML), fiber strength (FS) and micronaire value (MIC). A total of 107 mutant lines depicted significant variation for plant height. Maximum plant height (133.33 cm) was observed for the mutant line LZM-51-2. High GOT percentage was measured for two mutant lines (1.53%). A total of 76 mutant lines (58.02%) depicted higher fiber strength while 51 mutant lines showed lower variation (38.93%) than that of the wild type. One of the mutant lines exhibited 3.26 MIC values which was significantly lower than the wild type. All the mutant lines showed reduced UHML value than that of the wild type owing to the selection of mutant lines made for resistance to cotton leaf curl disease as well as high boll number which may have some negative impact on UHML. Secondly, fixation of genes has been achieved by the breeders for developing cotton varieties with high UHML which may limit the scope of mutagenesis for improving such highly domesticated trait. This phenomenon can be explored in length by re-sequencing the mutant lines. Correlations among the traits have been observed in the same manner as reported for cultivated diploid as well as tetraploid cotton species, suggesting that the mutant traits were conferred by the new alleles generated at the same locus, thus eliminating the chances of creating new genes. The principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to group the mutant lines which may have significant importance in  selecting the best mutant lines for developing resilient cotton cultivars. These mutant lines can also be used as a genetic resource for unraveling the genetic circuits of various traits using high-tech genomic assays.

1245-1253 Download
9

Evaluation of some physiological parameters in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


Murat Ardic

Evaluation of some physiological parameters in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)


ABSTRACT:

In this study, wheat genotypes with different characters were tested in different environments (arid, irrigated, waterlogging and KI application) and the responses of the genotypes to these conditions in terms of different parameters were determined. Altay 2000, Nacibey, Müfitbey, Gerek 79, Bezostaja-1 genotypes were used in the experiment. In the experiment, plant height, leaf area index, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, grain weight/spike, yield, grain yield, SOD, POD and proline measurements were made. Yield and yield components in wheat are largely under the influence of the environmental conditions. Bezostaja-1 and Altay 2000 genotypes were determined as stable and high performance cultivars best adapted to changing environmental conditions. While the most effective yield factors on grain yield were determined as plant height, chlorophyll a and b, grain weight/spike and LAI, SOD POD and proline were determined to be effective parameters in showing the effect of drought. It has been determined that KI application is a very effective method in identifying drought-resistant plants in irrigated conditions and gives very good results in imitating drought. In addition, drought and waterlogging are important inhibitory stress environments in plant growth. Besides, heritability of LAI, grain weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b plant height, grain yield, SOD, POD and proline were found to be so low and under effect of environmental conditions.

 

1255-1264 Download
10

QTL mapping for grain appearance quality traits using doubled haploid population of rice under different environments


Fahad Ali, Wei Chen, Sajid Fiaz, Yakun Wang, Xiangjin Wei, Lihong Xie, Guiai Jiao, Gaoneng Shao, Shikai Hu, Shaoqing Tang, Zhonghua Sheng and Peisong Hu

QTL mapping for grain appearance quality traits using doubled haploid population of rice under different environments


ABSTRACT:

Grain quality is an intrigue attribute with great importance as yield to any rice breeding program. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis was performed for rice grain appearance quality traits, a double haploid (DH) population derived from Zhongjiazao 17, a super rice variety, crossed with tropic Japonica variety D50. The seven appearance quality traits of DH population grown under three different environmental conditions were measured based on a linkage map containing 170 SSR markers. Total of 73 QTLs were identified covering all chromosome except chromosome 12. The main focus of the study was to identify QTLs that were stable under all different environments. However, four QTLs including GL3, GW3, LWR3 and TGW3 found in the surrounding of pericentromeric region of chromosomes 3. These QTLs, found responsible for grain length and grain width. GL3, a major gene with qGS3 was repeated in all three growth conditions, particularly interval RM6929-RM15490 was detected and stable in all three environments with phenotypic variations of 34.97%, 21.32% and 33.0%. In addition, for digenic interaction, a total of 8 QTLs on five traits were identified for additive environment interaction. Conclusively, QTLs qPGC-1, qTGW-3 and  qCS-1 had high phenotypic variation and additive effect that could improve the Grain appearance quality and such findings are valuable for future map-based cloning of the new detected QTLs and improving grain appearance quality and yield

1265-1275 Download
11

Agro-morphological characterization, growth and yield performance of glutinous and aromatic rice cultivars of Sylhet region in Bangladesh


Afia Ali Ayesha, M.M.U. Helal, M.N.H. Miah and M.N. Islam

Agro-morphological characterization, growth and yield performance of glutinous and aromatic rice cultivars of Sylhet region in Bangladesh


ABSTRACT:

Agro-morphological characters, growth and yield performances of 11 local cultivars and a high yielding variety (BRRI dhan34) were studied in pot culture at the experimental research field of Agronomy, Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU), Sylhet, Bangladesh for two consecutive years of Aman rice season (July to December 2017 and July to December 2018). The objective was to find out the qualitative glutinous and aromatic rice cultivars for future use. The treatments consisted of eleven local rice cultivars viz., Haitta, Lenjur, Dumai, Modonga, Maloti, Gandi, Biruy, Moyna sail, Nagra sail, Biruin, Madhumadab along with a control variety BRRI dhan34. Twenty-eight (28) agro-morphological traits, growth patterns, and yield performances were analyzed based on DUS (Distinctness, Uniformity, and Stability) guidelines, and results showed the phenological variation among the cultivars and BRRI dhan34. Among all the cultivars, Dumai and Lenjur were found as early mature (maturity days 77 and 92 days), Modonga showed lodging resistance, Biruin produced a higher grain yield than others, and Madhumadab had a finer grain with aromatic rice having lower 1000 grains weight. Association analysis also showed a positive relationship between the grain yield with length of panicle, grains per panicle, unfilled grains per panicle, and crop duration (days). So, above mentioned, cultivars were found as promising cultivars for future breeding purposes

1277-1284 Download
12

Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on growth, micromorphology and histology of grafted eggplant (Solanum melongena)


Guadalupe Magdaleno-García, Rocío Maricela Peralta-Manjarrez, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza, Antonio Juárez-Maldonado, Alberto Sandoval Rangel and Marcelino Cabrera-De La Fuente

Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on growth, micromorphology and histology of grafted eggplant (Solanum melongena)


ABSTRACT:

Grafting is a technique that allows plants to maximize water and nutrient absorption, while the use of nanoscale materials as fertilizers takes advantage of their unique physical and chemical properties. This study examined the effects of different zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnONPs) concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60 mg L-1) on the micromorphology, histology, and growth of grafted eggplants. The stomatic density and index, stoma length and width, as well as the number and area of xylem vessels were evaluated. The plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, root length, root dry weight, and foliar dry weight were also recorded. The results show that grafting primarily promotes plant growth and micromorphology, increasing the number of xylem vessels but reducing their area. The zinc oxide nanoparticles at a dose of 20 mg L-1 had favorable effects on leaf number, while at 40 mg L-1, there were positive changes in the stomatic density and index, as well as an increase in the number of xylem vessels along with a concurrent reduction in their area in grafted plants

1285-1293 Download
13

Comparison of desiccation tolerance of desert moss Syntrichia caninervis in tissue culture and sand culture


Yigong Zhang, Honglan Yang and Lu Zhuo

Comparison of desiccation tolerance of desert moss Syntrichia caninervis in tissue culture and sand culture


ABSTRACT:

Syntrichia caninervis is a stress-tolerant moss that has become an important experimental model for researches on desiccation tolerance and ecological restoration. However, its desiccation tolerance of In vitro culture remains poorly characterized. Here, we compared the morphological and physiological traits related to desiccation tolerance of regenerated mosses from Knop medium culture and sand substrate culture. In tissue culture, the explants first formed protonemata and then developed into gametophytes, whereas, the shoots grown on sand produced both protonemata and new gametophytes simultaneously. These results suggest the two regeneration patterns of S. caninervis have different phenotypic plasticity. Furthermore, under desiccation tolerance, the sand-cultured moss exhibits verrucose and spinous leaf surface, with higher abscisic acid (ABA) and trehalose contents than the tissue-cultured moss. However, the water responses during the processes of desiccation and rehydration were the same between the two cultured mosses, indicating that the two regenerated mosses possess the same desiccation-tolerant characteristics as wild mosses. By describing the desiccation tolerance of the two In vitro regenerated mosses, the findings of this study will help with efforts to provide sustainable and consistent materials for ongoing studies.

 

1295-1303 Download
14

Predicting the potential distribution of Taxus wallichiana var. Mairei under climate change in China using Maxent modeling


Li Hong-Qun, Xing Li-Gang and Sun Xie-Ping

Predicting the potential distribution of Taxus wallichiana var. Mairei under climate change in China using Maxent modeling


ABSTRACT:

Understanding the spatial distribution of species is significant for the conservation management of the endangered tree species, Taxus wallichiana var. mairei. And this species attracts people's attention owing to its important biological compounds such as paclitaxel (taxol) used in many cancer therapies. Here, the potential geographical distribution of the maire yew was analyzed by using the Maxent model from Mid-Holocene to the 2070s. The results indicated that the prediction performances were excellent with an area under curve of >0.9 for model training and testing. The most significant factors were precipitation of the driest month, annual precipitation, altitude and min temperature of the coldest month, with thresholds of 22.3 to 122.5 mm, 1,100 to 2,100 mm, 50 to 1,100 m and -2 to 4℃, respectively, indicating that the maire yew seems to prefer warm and humid environment. The suitable areas of the maire yew in China are mainly distributed on southwestern, central, southern and eastern China from Mid-Holocene to the 2070s. However, proportion of the suitable habitat is predicted to be increasing gradually from Mid-Holocene to the 2070s. Most importantly, western Henan, southern Shaanxi, eastern Sichuan and the border of Yunnan and Guizhou provinces etc. were predicted to be new suitable centralized areas for its introduction and cultivation. Thus, the study should be a useful guide for management decisions of the species

1305-1310 Download
15

Genetic variation in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) germplasm evaluated under irrigated conditions of agro-ecological uplands of Quetta, Balochistan


Abdullah Baloch, Saadullah Khan Laghari, Muhammad Ejaz, Manzoor Iqbal Khattak, Shazia Saeed, Faiqa Ayub, Hafeezullah and Shaheen Wali

Genetic variation in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) germplasm evaluated under irrigated conditions of agro-ecological uplands of Quetta, Balochistan


ABSTRACT:

Lentil is a main winter-sown legume crop widely grown in the Mediterranean type of climate, and has significant value as food, feed and fodder. Lentil often experiences considerable drought stress during growth season which negatively impact yield. Application of irrigation at crucial crop stages can stabilize productivity. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of irrigation on yield and study the correlated traits for indirect selection for yield. An experiment comprising eleven lentil genotypes including check variety Shiraz-96 was evaluated for yield and related traits under irrigation in randomize complete block designed repeated 3 times at Balochistan Agricultural Research and Development Center (BARDC), Quetta during 2018-19 season. The results indicate that significant genetic variation (p<0.05) is present among lentil genotypes. Results revealed that all the traits exhibit significantly except days to flowering (50%). Maximum grain yield was recorded for genotypes 6 which produced 1030 kg ha-1 grain yield and 3571 kg ha-1 biological yield and 30% harvest index followed by genotype 2 with 1000 kg ha-1 grain yield and 3183 kg ha-1 biological yield with harvest index value of 31%. Grain yield also showed highly positive correlation with biological yield with a value of 0.84. Yield component trait of 100 seed weight depicted highest weight for genotype 5 with 3.52 grams followed by genotype 7 with 3.37 grams. Similarly, number of seeds per plant data showed maximum number of grains for genotype 10 producing 75 seeds per plant. Canopy temperature was also recorded to check the impact of heat on crop. The data on CT revealed genotype 6 as the coolest genotype which was also high yielding. Correlation data also showed moderate negative correlation of CT with grain yield -0.39. Days to flowering (50%) revealed non-significant difference with flowering range of 121 to 127 days. Cluster analysis showed four different groups within 2 major groups. Principal component analysis illustrated that first four components explained 83.9 percent variance with first two PCs explained the major variance of 31.5 and 26.6 variation

1311-1317 Download
16

In silico prediction of potential miRNAs to target ZYMV in Cucumis melo


Muhammad Naveed Shahid, Sania Rasheed, Muhammad Shehzad Iqbal, Adil Jamal, Sana Khalid and Zeeshan Shamim

In silico prediction of potential miRNAs to target ZYMV in Cucumis melo


ABSTRACT:

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is the most important economically infected virus of the Cucurbitaceae family, as rigorous yield losses of up to 100% occur. Due to ZYMV the reduction occurs in the weight of fruit production and deficiency of shelf life of infected fruits. Infected plants are dwarf and have yellow mosaic-like symptoms. ZYMV is transmitted through infected seeds or by different aphid species through plant sap. For the prediction of melon-derived miRNA targets in the ZYMV genome, computational approaches were applied because miRNAs cooperate in the regulation of different cellular mechanisms. Target genes are negatively controlled by miRNA through post-transcriptionally, mRNA cleavage and translational inhibition. Different algorithms (miRanda, RNA22, psRNAtarget and tapirhybrid) were used for plant miRNA target prediction. Overall 120 mature miRNAs from mirBase were tested for ZYMV genome hybridization. Out of 120 miRNAs only 4 Cucumis melo miRNAs (cme-MIR396b, cme-MIR396c, cme-MIR396d (2) and cme-MIR319d) were predicted for ZYMV genome silencing. The genes of ZYMV those were targeted by these four miRNAs are PI, HC-Pro, P3, 6K1, CIP, Nia-VPg, Nia-Pro, NIB, and CP. The predicted miRNAs may be used to develop resistant ZYMV transgenic melon plants

1319-1325 Download
17

Analysis of SSR loci information in transcriptome of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying by RNA-Seq


Zheng Zhang, Zhenzhen Sui, Mingge Chen, Huanxing Chang, Luyao Yu, Tong Zhang, Dongxue Yin and Wei Liu

Analysis of SSR loci information in transcriptome of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying by RNA-Seq


ABSTRACT:

Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying is a rare and endangered medicinal plant in China, and the podophyllotoxin contained in its rhizome is a precursor substance of synthetic anti-cancer drugs, which has special effects on antineoplastic activities. In this study, 75245 Unigenes were assembled by splicing clean reads with Trinity software based on the transcriptome sequencing data of S. hexandrum. A total of 19934 SSR loci were identified in the total Unigenes by using MISA software, and the number of SSR containing sequences was 14809, accounting for 19.68% of the total Unigenes. The dominant repeat motif was mononucleotide, accounting for 55.51% of the total SSR loci, followed by dinucleotide and trinucleotide, accounting for 22.87% and 19.02%, respectively. A/T, AG/CT and AAG/CTT were repeat units with high frequency in mononucleotide, dinucleotide and trinucleotide, respectively. Furthermore, ten was the most frequent number of repeats, up to 5063 SSR loci, accounting for 25.40% of the total SSR loci, followed by 5 repetitions, the number of loci was 2584, accounting for 12.96% of the total. This study utilized transcriptome high-throughput sequencing technique to analyze SSR loci information, which can provide a new basis for genetic diversity research, systematic differentiation analysis, effective molecular marker development and molecular directional breeding of S. hexandrum

1327-1333 Download
18

Cloning and expression analysis of BnMYB90 and BnMYB114 and their regulation on DFR and F3H in Brassica napus


Zhuang Li, Hao Liang, Xi Jiang, Liangjun Huang, Wei Zhang, Shi Xing Guo, Jie Liu, Weiguo Liu, Kai Hou, Junbo Du, Lili Lin, Jin Yang, Shao Hong Fu and Yong Cheng Wu

Cloning and expression analysis of BnMYB90 and BnMYB114 and their regulation on DFR and F3H in Brassica napus


ABSTRACT:

As one of the most important transcription factors, MYB75 and MYB90 are mainly regulators that influence pigment deposition by promoting the expression of genes through the anthocyanin synthesis pathway in Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh]. Yet the members of MYBs and the mechanism in modulation this process in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is largely unknown. In this work, we found that two MYB TFs (BnMYB90 and BnMYB114) may influence anthocyanin biosynthesis. The transcription of MYB90 and MYB114 could be detected at all tested tissues in B. napus. Both BnMYB90 and BnMYB114 were located in the nucleus, which indicates they act as TFs and could modulate gene expression. Subsequently, results of both experiments In vitro and In vivo indicated MYBs bind to the promoters of F3H and DFR, which belong to an early and late gene of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, respectively. Our experiments provide a preliminary and probable mechanism of how MYB TFs influence anthocyanin synthesis in oilseed rape

1335-1347 Download
19

Wheat genotypes potential with longest coleoptile length sown at different sowing depths


Umar Khitab Saddozai, Mohammad Safdar Baloch, Atiq Ahmad Alizai and Abdul Aziz Khakwani

Wheat genotypes potential with longest coleoptile length sown at different sowing depths


ABSTRACT:

Southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan are considered arid and rain-fed because of low annual rainfall. Moisture levels in many parts of this zone are deeper causing poor seed germination. To overcome this problem, ten wheat genotypes having variable coleoptile length were evaluated and tested at three sowing depths. Genotypes included in the studies were; NIFA-Insaf, NARC-09, Pakistan-13, Bathoor-2008, Shahkar-2013, Shalkot, AARI-2008, Gandum-1, Tatara and Local Bhakkar. All the genotypes were tested at 5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm of sowing depths. Studies were carried out in pots having 0.61 m2 area only two lifesaving irrigations with measured quantity of water (two liters) were given to all pots. Genotype NIFA-Insaf, followed by Shahkar-2013 and Shalkot performed best by showing maximum percent germination, highest 1000-grain weight, maximum fertile tillers, maximum grains spike-1, highest biological and grain yield. Results further revealed that sowing at 10 cm depth; the wheat genotypes produced largest number of fertile tillers, grains spike-1 and eventually the enhanced grain yield. Planting wheat at 15 cm of depth adversely affected the yield and all other yield contributing parameters. Current findings found that wheat variety NIFA-Insaf by having longer coleoptile length, performed best at deeper sowing with low moisture availability.

 

1349-1358 Download
20

Protoplast isolation and regeneration from leaves and nucellar embryos of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)


Syeda Kahkashan Kazmi, Hammad Afzal Kayani, Marium Raziq, Sheeba Naz, Saifullah Khan and Nurul Kabir

Protoplast isolation and regeneration from leaves and nucellar embryos of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)


ABSTRACT:

Citrus is one of the most dominant horticultural fruit crops in the world. For the genetic improvement of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulate blanco), protoplast isolation and somatic hybridization strategy is suitable. In this study, Kinnow mandarin protoplasts were isolated to get single species regeneration. Protoplasts were obtained from explants like In vitro and field grown leaves and nucellar embryos. Enzymatic protoplast isolation was performed and then yield, and viability testing was done. After initial testing of protoplast their regeneration was achieved. Nucellar embryos gave best regeneration but protoplasts from leaves were unable to regenerate. This study showed that 16 hours incubation was found best for optimum viable protoplasts yield of 5.4 x 104 protoplasts/gm FW (fresh weight) from nucellar embryos and 17.3 x 104 protoplasts/gm FW (fresh weight) of non-viable protoplasts yield from leaves

1359-1364 Download
21

Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of purple acid phosphatase gene, PAP1, from Aegilops species


Lijiang Hou, Xiaoyu Feng, Yunze Lu, Qiufang Wu, Xinqiang Gao, Jian Dong and Junwei Wang

Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of purple acid phosphatase gene, PAP1, from Aegilops species


ABSTRACT:

Phosphorus (P)-starvation is one of the abiotic stresses that can adversely affect plants, causing reductions in their potential yield. In order to discover more P-starvation tolerant germplasm resources and associated candidate genes, we studied both the isolation and characterization of the key phosphorus catalytic enzyme gene PAP1 in Aegilops, an inherently abiotic stress tolerant plant genus. Comprehensive phenotypic observations made under a P-starvation treatment evinced that the stress tolerance was stronger in Aegilops crassa than Aegilops ventricosa. Further, the CDS (coding DNA sequence) PAP1 from the above Aegilops genotypes were cloned; this revealed that both AePAP1s encode low-molecular weight PAPs, much like mammalian PAPs (35 kD). They were highly expressed in roots and constitutively expressed under phosphorus (P) deprivation. The DNA sequence alignment uncovered the presence of 42 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between AeVePAP1 and AeCrPAP1, including 20 synonymous SNPs and 22 non-synonymous SNPs. According to the amino acid sequence alignment, the two AePAP1 proteins possessed unique, seven metal-binding residues as well as five conserved motifs of the PAPs family. The constructed phylogenic tree showed that the two AePAP1s from Aegilops shared a tight evolutionary relationship to other mammal-like PAPs from proximal species of Triticum aestivum. Finally, the signal peptide and subcellular localization analysis predicted that both AeVePAP1and AeCrPAP1could play a role in extracellular P scavenging in addition to P mobilization from the rhizosphere

1365-1373 Download
22

Genome-wide identification and characterization of the Dof gene family in Prunus sibirica


Hongguo Li, Ningning Gou, Chen Chen, Kaijun Liu, Lin Wang and Tana Wuyun

Genome-wide identification and characterization of the Dof gene family in Prunus sibirica


ABSTRACT:

Prunus sibirica (Siberian apricot) is a species of the family Rosaceae, section Armeniaca (Lam.) Koc, which has enormous potential for oil and food raw materials. DNA binding with one finger (Dof) transcription factors play major roles in plant biological processes. However, the evolutionary and functional information of the Dofs in P. sibirica remain unclear. Here, we conducted a genome-wide screening and characterization of the Dofs in P. sibirica, and 24 putative PsDofs were identified, which were distributed across all eight chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PsDofs were divided into four major groups (A, B, C, and D). The gene structure and conserved motifs of PsDofs were also predicted. The expression profiles of PsDofs exhibited different expression patterns in flower buds, flowers, leaves, fruits, and kernels. This study provides an important foundation for better understand the evolution and function of PsDofss

1375-1383 Download
23

An investigation of  phylogenetic relationships of  populations of Artemisia taurica Willd. (Asteraceae) from Turkey using cpDNA “trn” regions


Pelin Yilmaz Sancar, Sueda Delipoyraz, Semsettin Civelek and Murat Kursat

An investigation of  phylogenetic relationships of  populations of Artemisia taurica Willd. (Asteraceae) from Turkey using cpDNA “trn” regions


ABSTRACT:

Artemisia L. is one of the biggest genera in the family Asteraceae, with around 500-600 taxa at specific and sub-specific levels diveded in five subgenera. The majority of the members of this genus have a high economic value. Due to the high number of taxa, lot of taxonomists are tried to solve the problem of its classification and phylogeny but its natural classification still has not been achieved.

In order to find the phylogenetic relations and kinships between individual samples, the present study investigated the base polymorphisms in sequences of non - coding trnT -trnL3’ section of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of 54 individual samples of 22 different populations belonging to A. taurica Willd. in Turkey.

DNA was isolated from the leaves of the studied individual samples by the CTAB method, and isolated genomic DNA was multiplied in PCR by using trna and trnd primaries of the trnT-trnL3’ section. The obtained data were evaluated by the Mega X program, and phylogenetic trees were prepared by using the “Maximum Likelihood” method.

There are no molecular significant differences between populations of the species A. taurica in Turkey depending on absence of genetic isolation and still ongoing gene. The view that the morphological differences observed on the samples of the Zernek dam lake (Van) population of the species A. taurica were found to be related to the ecological conditions and ploidy level.

 

1385-1390 Download
24

Molecular characterization of seven major cereal species for genotypic relationships and assessment of genetic diversity


Mushtaq Ahmad, Faten Zubair Filimban, Abdullah Alaklabi, Parvej Alam and Rafiq Lone

Molecular characterization of seven major cereal species for genotypic relationships and assessment of genetic diversity


ABSTRACT:

In this study, eight RAPD markers were utilized to assess the genetic diversity genotypic relationships of 21 genotypes of seven cereal species. In total, 92 DNA fragments (size ranged from 100-1500 bp) were detected for all eight primers (ranged from 9-14), in which 89 (96.74%) were found polymorphic. The primer OPA-04 displayed high levels of polymorphic information content (PIC = 0.3636) and observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.4776) while marker index was detected highest in OPA-01 (MI = 4.2132). The number of polymorphic loci ranged from 8 to 31 in Zea mays (ZM) and Triticum aestivum (TA) populations, respectively. Nei’s gene analysis revealed the inter-population diversity estimate higher (HC = 0.0745) than intra-population (HS = 0.1059) with overall gene diversity as HT = 0.3452. The genetic differentiation coefficient (GST = 0.6931) was noticed higher than inter-population within a region (GCS = 0.2969). Estimate of gene flow from GST (Nm = 1.1868) was found faster than detected from GCS (Nm = 0.2214). The phylogram discriminated the landraces very effectively with respect to the cytogenetic background among presently studied cereal populations. The genetic components assessed indicated the abundant genetic polymorphism in cereal populations and each genotype has specific genetic identity and got organized into respective clusters.

 

1391-1398 Download
25

Litter fall and decomposition of mangrove species Avicennia marina in Surabaya east coast, Indonesia


Hery Purnobasuki, Sarno and Ade Hermawan

Litter fall and decomposition of mangrove species Avicennia marina in Surabaya east coast, Indonesia


ABSTRACT:

The mangrove ecosystem is supported by leaf litter production and decomposition that accompanied the release of nutrients in system and adjacent coastal water. The release of nutrients in the form of nitrogen and phosphorus have an important role to enrich the nutritional content and is beneficial for marine organisms. In present study litter production, rate of leaf decomposition and release of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) in mangrove habitat at Surabaya East Coast, Java, Indonesia were studied. The result showed total mangrove litter production (dry weight) ranged between around 2.15 to 3.28 g/m2/day. Among them leaf litter was the major contributor (76.26% –78.53%) followed by branches (9.43-13.27%), and reproductive parts (8.20–14, 31%). Mangrove forests in Surabaya East Coast are the result of reforestation with an area of approximately 345.6 ha which potentialy contribute nitrogen and phosphorus (109.43 to 173.549 kg/ha/ year) and (5.467 to 8.12 kg/h/year), respectively. Variations in litter decomposition indicate fluctuations input of nutrients that are important for mangrove ecosystems.

 

1399-1403 Download
26

Genome-wide association mapping and population structure for stripe rust in Pakistani wheat germplasm


Rizwan Qaiser, Zahid Akram, Shahzad Asad, Inam-Ul-Haq, Saad Imran Malik, Muhammad Fayyaz, Muhammad Sufiyan, Sahir Hameed Khattak, Karansher Singh Sandhu and Gaganjot Singh Sidhu

Genome-wide association mapping and population structure for stripe rust in Pakistani wheat germplasm


ABSTRACT:

Stripe rust disease caused by Puccinia striiformis is one of the utmost destructive foliar diseases of wheat all around the world. The most effective strategy to control this disease is to develop and grow resistant varieties. To identify the genomic regions responsible for resistance, 294 Pakistani hexaploid wheat accessions were subjected to genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These lines were characterized phenotypically for stripe rust response at seedling stage in controlled conditions in Pakistan and in fields near Mount Vernon and Pullman in Washington, United States. A targeted amplicon sequencing approach was used to genotype the wheat germplasm with 787 of SNP markers. Twenty-four genotypes showed resistance to stripe rust in controlled conditions in Pakistan. In Washington, 193 and 97 genotypes showed resistance at Mount Vernon and Pullman, respectively. GWAS results showed that seven and three loci were associated with resistance observed at the seedling stage under controlled and field conditions, respectively, and only one locus on chromosome 7A was significantly associated with adult plant resistance. This study identified resistance loci in Pakistani wheat germplasm that can be used in breeding resistant wheat varieties.

1405-1416 Download
27

An assessment of phytoplankton diversity in relation to  environmental variables in the Indus river estuary, Sindh, Pakistan


Sher Khan Panhwar and Mushaiyada Mairaj

An assessment of phytoplankton diversity in relation to  environmental variables in the Indus river estuary, Sindh, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Phytoplankton diversity, community structure and seasonal oscillation were appraised from the Indus River Estuary (IRE) in 2017~2018. Due to high turbidity in the IRE overall diversity was low whereas diatoms were higher than that of the dinoflagelates. A total of twenty two species include sixteen diatom and six dinoflage were recorded. Among diatoms Pseudonitzschia (1960 cells/ml) was abundantly netted followed by Thalassionema (1412 cells/ml) and Thalassiosira (570 cells/ml). Genus Protoperidinium of the dinoflagelates amounting 570 cells/ml was abundantly found in October. Species distribution, richness and eveness calculated to determine diversity peofile. The highest value (2.38, 0.88) of Shannon and Simpsons’ diversity indices calculated for diatoms in September appears to be suitable season due low turbidity in the IRE. A cluster analysis was established to understand similarity among season/species is graphically represented by a dandrogram distinguishes three clades. A multivariate approach of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was established to determine impact of environmental variables on the seasonal distribution and abundance plankton communities. Overall 73.43% variability (eigenvalue 0.451, P value 0.324) deduced from first component PCI and 19.85 PCII (eigenvalue 0.0127, P value 0.996) from loaded data sets. It is summarized that meagre density of plankton is more likely controlled by the abiotic factor rather than biotic mechanism (Heterotrophs). Thus plankton distribution is triggered by the turbidity, temperature and salinity rather than conductivity or dissolved oxygen. The outputs of this study can be an input to understand food~web dynamics in the IRE

1417-1425 Download
28

Cicer appozaicum (Fabaceae): a new species from Zhob (Balochistan, Pakistan)


Nazar Khan, Amir Sultan, L.J.G. Van Der Maesen, Muhammad Qaiser and Kamran Ishaq

Cicer appozaicum (Fabaceae): a new species from Zhob (Balochistan, Pakistan)


ABSTRACT:

Specimens of a native Cicer were collected from different localities in the Zhob district of Pakistan. It is described as a new species, Cicer appozaicum. It belongs to section Vicioides in the subgenus Viciastrum and is characterized by small flabellate leaflets, coiled simple tendril, very small triangular spinescent stipules often parted into two spinelets, a minute bract, large lilac flowers, rhomboid fruits, beaked rugose to tuberculate and granulose seeds and presence of glandular pubescence on the entire plant, except corolla. Illustrations and a distribution map of the new species are provided. The key to Cicer species in the Flora of Pakistan is amended.

 

1427-1431 Download
29

Morphology and ecology of Anchusa limbata (Boraginaceae) – native to Antalya (Turkey)


Ilker Cinbilgel

Morphology and ecology of Anchusa limbata (Boraginaceae) – native to Antalya (Turkey)


ABSTRACT:

In this study, morphological and ecological characteristics of Anchusa limbata Boiss. & Heldr., a rare species endemic to Antalya, have been investigated. The morphological features of the species were examined in detail; measurements were made with a digital caliper, ruler, light microscope, stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Detailed description has been given by specifying the minimum and maximum ranges, and morphological notes have been provided. Ecological data were obtained from field and laboratory studies. In the field studies, the species growing with A. limbata were recorded and the locality characteristics, slope and aspect ranges were also noted with a clinometer and a lensatic compass, and numerical data about the population status of the species in the areas of its occurrence were recorded as ranges and threatening factors were identified by making counts in 15 sample areas. The relationship between the distribution of the species and soil properties was examined. A. limbata grows in chalky soils of the redpine forest and travertine slopes. Populations of this species are found between 24° and 355° exposures (commonly ENE), between 0° and 45° inclinations. Another feature is some indicator species that indicate the presence (presence/absence) of the species in the fields such as Pinus brutia, Verbascum leptocladum, Thymelaea tartonraira, Alkanna pinardi etc. are indicators of A. limbata’s presence. In contrast to the literature, both biennial and perennial individuals of the species have been recorded. The threatening factors for the species are urbanization, climatic changes, tourism activities, field and road opening, landscape arrangement. The current research has shown that A. limbata must be protected together with its natural habitat using various in situ conservation strategies

1433-1444 Download
30

Seasonal variations of algal diversity in response to water quality at Beeshazari lake, tropical lowland, Nepal


Deepa Roka, Shiva Kumar Rai and Narayan Prasad Ghimire

Seasonal variations of algal diversity in response to water quality at Beeshazari lake, tropical lowland, Nepal


ABSTRACT:

The algal diversity of an ecotone between land and water is majorly determined by the quality of water. Seasonal fluctuation in water quality due to natural and anthropogenic influence in tropical lowland lakes of Nepal brings variations in algal diversity. The purpose of the study was to assess seasonal variation of the algal diversity in response to physicochemical parameters of lakeshore water. Sampling was performed for algae during monsoon and winter season in the year 2018-2019. The value of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solute (TDS) and conductivity were recorded highest during winter while highest temperature was recorded during monsoon season. Chlorophyceae was found to be dominant during both seasons. Shannon-Weiner Index was higher during monsoon with more evenly distributed algae species. Closterium sp. and Glaucocystis sp. were more frequent while Gomphonema sp. was highly abundant during monsoon. Dictyosphaerium sp., Anabaena sp., Pinnularia sp. and Closterium sp. showed high abundance with high conductivity during winter but Cymbella sp., Ulnaria sp. and Pleurotaenium sp. seemed concentrated towards high DO during winter

1445-1452 Download
31

Changes in foliage biomass of the genera Larix and Pinus along gradients of temperature and precipitation in Eurasia


Vladimir Andreyevich Usoltsev, Abdul Shakoor, Gul Zaib, Stefan Trogisch, Xiaozhe Ma and Ivan Stepanovich Tsepordey

Changes in foliage biomass of the genera Larix and Pinus along gradients of temperature and precipitation in Eurasia


ABSTRACT:

Forest ecosystems are an essential part of the global carbon cycle and constitute a large fraction of the storage of terrestrial carbon. However, climate change may induce shifts in temperature and precipitation. These changes in temperature and precipitation have pronounced consequences for forest growth and carbon sequestration potential. This study addressed the comparative analysis of foliage biomass in the deciduous genus Larix spp. and the evergreen subgenus Pinus spp. in gradients of annual precipitation and winter temperature. The database for modeling involved 400 and 2,110 sample plots for Larch and Pine, respectively. Pine had reduced foliage biomass in dry conditions; however, an increase in foliage biomass was observed in moist conditions. On the contrary, regardless of conditions, Larix accumulated more foliage biomass. Interestingly, precipitation (100mm) increased Pine tree foliage biomass in warm regions. This positive trend of precipitation was observed for Larch in warm regions. We argue that these responses are related to the differences in physiology. In winter, Larch carries out only respiration. We discuss that these responses are due to the different status of tree needles in these two species. Understanding tree genera responses to rising temperature and shifts in precipitation regimes will enable us to improve predictions of the carbon storage potential in Eurasian forests.

 

1453-1459 Download
32

Achene micromorphological characteristics and taxonomic significance in Leontopodium R. Brown ex Cass. taxa (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in China


Yi Ran Ma, Zhen Wei, Yang Lu, Zheng Li, Qing Fei Zhao and Shi Xin Zhu

Achene micromorphological characteristics and taxonomic significance in Leontopodium R. Brown ex Cass. taxa (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) in China


ABSTRACT:

Leontopodium R. Brown ex Cass.belongs to the tribe Gnaphalieae in the family Asteraceae; it comprises approximately 60 species worldwide, of which 40 are distributed in China. The morphological characteristics of the achene are relatively stable and can be used as taxonomic criteria for species classification within Asteraceae. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the achene micromorphological characteristics of 28 species and 1 variety of Chinese Leontopodium. The results showed that the achenes of Leontopodium species were elliptical or narrow elliptical, approximately 0.7–1.6-mm long × 0.1–0.6-mm wide. The surface ornamentation was reticulate or rippled with clavate twin hairs or smooth. The carpopodium base was constricted or unconstricted. Based on these characteristics, we provided a new key for Chinese Leontopodium taxa. The characteristics of the achene trichome, surface ornamentation, and carpopodium show important taxonomic value at different taxonomic levels, leading us to arrive at the following conclusions. 1. The shape of the achene trichome is valuable for the taxonomic delimitation of taxa between Leontopodium and related genera. 2. The achene surface ornamentation can be categorized into two types and is a taxonomic tool for classification at the section level within Leontopodium. 3. The characteristics of the carpopodium and trichome density can serve as important features under the section level. Thus, achene micromorphological characteristics provide significant morphological evidence that could play an important role in resolving various taxonomic problems within Leontopodium and among related genera in Asteraceae.

1461-1474 Download
33

Vegetation analysis of Sungai Tembiluk Sungai Air Mata mangrove forest: a proposed site of Ketapang Botanical Garden in west Kalimantan


Didi Usmadi, Joko Ridho Witono, Suhardjono Prawiroatmodjo, Izu Andry Fijridiyanto, Dina Safarinanugraha, Anggun Ratna Gumilang, Muhammad Sabran and Taufik Waliansyah

Vegetation analysis of Sungai Tembiluk Sungai Air Mata mangrove forest: a proposed site of Ketapang Botanical Garden in west Kalimantan


ABSTRACT:

The mangrove forest of Sungai Tembiluk ̶ Sungai Air Mata is a High Conservation Value (HCV) area composed of native plants of Ketapang Regency, West Kalimantan, which is proposed as Ketapang Botanical Garden. This study aims to analyze the vegetation composition, Important Value Index (IVI), species richness, diversity, and evenness in the mangrove forest of Sungai Tembiluk ̶ Sungai Air Mata that could be used as the basis of sustainable management practices. Thirtyone plots of 10x10 m laid down along the transect and 10 mangrove species were identified. Seedlings were dominated by Bruguiera gymnorhiza (IVI = 109.83%), while sapling and tree were dominated by Rhizophora apiculata (IVI = 160.79% and 163.28%, respectively). The Margalef Richness Index (D) was 1.11 (low), the Shannon Diversity Index (H') was 1.08 (moderate), and the Pielou Evenness Index (J’) was 0.47 (moderate). The horizontal structure was an L ̶ form, which meant as the diameter class getting bigger and the number of species was becoming fewer. The vertical structure had four canopy layers, namely stratum B, C, D, and E. The plant diversity information of this region is essential as a starting point for the development of Ketapang Botanical Garden in order to maintain and improve the initial environmental conditions and native plant species composition

1475-1484 Download
34

Plants secondary metabolites (PSMS), as an investigational source against COVID-19 from flora of Pakistan


Matiullah Khan, Afifa Zaeem, Ammara Munir, Aneela Ulfat and Aamir Mumtaz

Plants secondary metabolites (PSMS), as an investigational source against COVID-19 from flora of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Plant Secondary Metabolites (PSMs) are naturally occurring organic compounds inside the plant produced in response to any internal or external environmental stress. These organic chemicals are in different forms (Terpenoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, etc.). PSMs are an active source of medicines against many types of viral as well as microbial diseases. Pakistani flora is also a rich source of medicinal plants, and their therapeutic range has great importance. These plants are already in use against various types of microbial diseases. The primary aim to write this paper is to highlight PSMs of medicinal plants of Pakistani flora, which can be effective against COVID-19

1485-1493 Download
35

Repurposed traditional medicinal plants as an important weapon for fighting against COVID-19: Pakistani perspective


Bushra Arshad

Repurposed traditional medicinal plants as an important weapon for fighting against COVID-19: Pakistani perspective


ABSTRACT:

In present scenario, World needs prevention and control of SARS-COV2 ailment epidemic. To manage overall sheer carrier and sufferers of covid-19 needs intensive medical assistance and adjunctive treatment plans to overcome the malady. The outbreak can be coped with support of ailment suppression through public fitness measures and adjunctive treatments for patients. In Pakistan due to scarce health care amenities, most of the rural population rely upon indigenous traditional medicinal plant (TMPs) resources. Due to lack of proper anti-covid-19 therapy, TMPs/ herbal treatments could be helpful as first line of defence. It is indispensable to securitize potent repurposed TMPS to impede viral entry, viral proliferation manifestations, inflammation and immunity booster as major weapons against the COVID-19. However, most of these TMPs are being examined in a lot of molecular docking analysis, In vitro In vivo experimentation and in clinical trials at various levels. Auxiliary to this, review describes current hallmark of vitamins research in efficient functioning of immune system. This overview suggested that traditional medicinal plants are safe and have enough hierarchy of evidence to use them as adjunctive treatment. This review compiles, the medicinal plants with potent bioactive compounds to devise fast and sensitive adjunctive therapy and for further planning to explore suitable candidates for drug development.

 

1495-1505 Download
36

Antifungal activity of n-butanol stem extract of quinoa against Macrophomina phaseolina


Iqra Haider Khan and Arshad Javaid

Antifungal activity of n-butanol stem extract of quinoa against Macrophomina phaseolina


ABSTRACT:

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a recently introduced pseudo-cereal in Pakistan. The present study aimed to assess the antifungal potential of a polar solvent n-butanol soluble fraction of methanolic stem extract of quinoa against Macrophomina phaseolina. The study was further extended to identify the possible antifungal constituents through GC-MS analysis. In vitro bioassays revealed that a 25 mg mL-1 concentration of the n-butanol fraction in malt extract broth can completely control the fungal growth. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of 9 volatile compounds namely stigmasta-7, 16-dien-3-ol, (3.beta.,5.alpha.)- (23.95%), gamma-sitosterol (16.92%), stigmasterol (13.46%), decane (7.88%), 2-propylcyclohexanol (6.90%), 1,2-benzedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester (5.07%), cyclohexene,3-nonyl- (4.36%), 4-butyl (dimethyl) silyloxpentadecane (3.09%), and 2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid-5-oxo-, ethyl ester (1.60%) in this fraction. Literature survey showed that stigmasterol and 1,2-benzedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester had antifungal activities against a variety of fungal species and might be responsible for control of M. phaseolina in the present study

1507-1510 Download
37

Preliminary research on pathogenic fungi colonizing Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss.


Katarzyna Pieczul, Ilona Swierczynska, Katarzyna Byczkowska and Maria Drapikowska

Preliminary research on pathogenic fungi colonizing Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss.


ABSTRACT:

Pathogenic fungi were sampled in western Poland from cereals (Triticosecale, Secale cereale L.) and from the accompanying weed Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss. – an invasive species for the flora of Poland, and Western and Central Europe. The most numerous pathogens were Fusarium spp., with 122 isolates obtained from A. aristatum and 98 from cereals, and Alternaria spp., with 124 isolates obtained from A. aristatum and 149 from cereals. In the tested cereals and weed, many other pathogen cultures were also detected (Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum sp., Helminthosporium sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Stemphylium sp., Ulocladium sp.). A. aristatum, as an invasive weed species, inhabited by a large number of pathogenic fungi, is a potential vector for fungal spread, especially in infertile crop fields, and also in anthropogenic habitats which A. aristatum has successfully colonised.

 

1511-1515 Download
38

Phytochemical study and antimicrobial activities of extracts and their derived fractions obtained from Berberis vulgaris L. and Stellaria media L. leaves


Nisar Ahmad, Asim Shakil, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Ijaz Ahmad and Abdul Wahab

Phytochemical study and antimicrobial activities of extracts and their derived fractions obtained from Berberis vulgaris L. and Stellaria media L. leaves


ABSTRACT:

This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potential of leaves of Stellaria media Linn. and Berberis vulgaris Linn. In the present study, the antimicrobial activities of extracts and its derived fractions obtained from the leaves of B. vulgaris, and S. media were evaluated against pathogens by using agar well diffusion method. The extracts and fractions (10 µg/ml) of selected plants were tested against single Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, six Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella dysenteriae and three fungal pathogens Fusarium solani, Alternaria alternata, Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition of extracts/fractions were compared with the standards drug used streptomycin for antibacterial activity and nystatin for antifungal activity. The results showed that crude extract and fractions of S. media leaves gave good inhibitions ranging from 15 mm to 17.5 mm against tested bacteria and zone of inhibitions ranging from 6.8 mm to 16.5 mm against fungal pathogens. While extracts/fractions derived from the leaves of our second selected plant B. vulgaris showed no remarkable action against all tested microbes except P. aeruginosa against which plant showed good activities. The phytochemical investigation of our research plants showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenol, terpenoids and glycosides groups of chemicals are present in our selected plants. The antimicrobial activities can be correlated with the phytochemicals present in our research plants. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products; all these preliminary reports form a primary platform for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies

1517-1521 Download
39

Antifungal activity of Lactococcus lactis against anthracnose pathogen, Colletotrichum capsici of chilli


Muhammad Aiman Fakri, Mohd Nizam Lani and Chuah Tse Seng

Antifungal activity of Lactococcus lactis against anthracnose pathogen, Colletotrichum capsici of chilli


ABSTRACT:

Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum capsici, has impeded output in major chilli-growing regions, resulting in yield losses of 10 to 25%. Our previous In vitro study demonstrated that Lactic acid bacteria of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis had potential to inhibit C. capsici. Thus, this study aimed to investigate efficacy of L. lactis subsp. lactis, against C. capsici in three chilli varieties: Kulai chilli (Capsicum annuum var. kulai, Sakata 469), Hot chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum var. longum), and Bird's eye chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) under glasshouse conditions. At the maturity index of 7, the wounded fruits were sprayed with sterilized distilled water (negative control), mancozeb (positive control), and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis solution. The fruits were then infected with spore suspension of C. capsici at 1 x 108 spores/ml one day after treatment. After 7 days of treatment, the lesion area of treated and non-treated (negative control) C. annum var. kulai fruits did not differ significantly (p>0.05), whereas the lesion area of C. annum var. longum fruits treated with Lc. lactis was twice as small as that of non-treated fruits. C annum var. longum showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in chroma, hue angle, lightness, fruit firmness, and total soluble solid between treated and non-treated fruits. There was no need to apply Lc. lactis subsp. lactis treatment to inhibit C. capsici in C. frutescens because it was tolerant to C. capsici infection. This finding implies that Lc. lactis subsp. lactis has the ability to serve as an antifungal agent against C. capsici in C annum var. longum without affecting physico-chemical properties of the fruits.

 

1523-1530 Download
40

Evaluation of antioxidant and larvicidal activities of selected tamarix species against the southern house mosquito “Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)”


Izhar Ahmad, Ikram Ilahi and Asghari Bano

Evaluation of antioxidant and larvicidal activities of selected tamarix species against the southern house mosquito “Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)”


ABSTRACT:

The present study was aimed to evaluate Tamarix baluchistanica (Qaiser), Tamarix androssowii (Bunge) and Tamarix mascatensis (Bunge) for scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) free radicals and larvicidal potential against mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus; an important vector for lymphatic filariasis. The aerial parts of plants dried in shade, extracted with methanol and subsequently evaluated for antioxidant and larvicidal activities. The Crude extracts of T. baluchistanica, T. androssowii and T. mascatensis exhibited ABTS scavenging of 17%, 4.6% and 6% at concentration of 20 µg/ml and 50%, 23% and 30% at concentration of 100 µg/ml, respectively, similar results were observed for DPPH free radicals scavenging activity. The most active methanolic extract of T. baluchistanica was subjected to fractionation. Antioxidant bioassays revealed that ethyl acetate fraction was most potent among all the fractions, exhibited IC50 of 32.46 µg/ml and IC90 of 91.32 µg/ml against DPPH radicals. This was similar to the standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid which showed IC50 of 32.48 µg/ml and IC90 of 86.73 µg/ml. Antioxidant activity against ABTS demonstrated that among all the fractions, least IC50 of 37.94 µg/ml and IC90 of 129.85 µg/ml was also recorded for ethyl acetate fraction of T. baluchistanica extract, comparable to reference antioxidant, BHT having IC50 of 36.78 µg/ml and IC90 of 113.07 µg/ml. The crude extract of T. baluchistanica showed more larvicidal activity against the 3rd instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The chloroform fractions showed lowest LC50 of 0.06 mg/ml, followed by n-hexane fraction having LC50 of 1.26 mg/ml, while lowest LC90 (2.12 mg/ml) was exhibited by n-hexane fraction, followed by chloroform fraction (7.94 mg/ml). The antioxidant and larvicidal activity of these species are reported for the first time. Further research is required to isolate and identify the active components of the plant extracts for effective implication in the control of the vector.

 

1531-1536 Download
41

Spatio-temporal analysis of cucumber mosaic virus disease and its sustainable management


Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan, Yasir Iftikhar, Ashara Sajid, Muhammad Usman Ghani, Muhammad Zafar-Ul-Hye and Mazhar Abbas

Spatio-temporal analysis of cucumber mosaic virus disease and its sustainable management


ABSTRACT:

Cucumber fields were surveyed in the vicinity of Sargodha to map the spatial and temporal CMV disease distribution. Infected samples were collected for pathogenicity tests, biophysical properties and serological assays. After confirmation of virus; data of disease prevalence, incidence and severity was recorded which showed strong positive linear relationship. There was gradual increase in disease after each temporal assessment. Bhatti Town (BT) showed more than 90% disease prevalence followed by College of Agriculture (COA) and Adaptive Research Farm (ARF). This experiment also demonstrated the significant contribution of NPK solution, Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), benzothiadiazole (BTH) and elephant ear plant (EEP) extract in improving the cucumber performance against CMV disease. There was positive linear relationship between all disease parameters. All the treatments gave significant contribution for sustainable disease management. NPK was the efficient among rest of the treatments with more than 75% disease inhibition. The second most effective treatment was BTH followed by NAA and EEP with 63%, 55% and 39% disease control, respectively. The study provided useful information for estimation disease dynamics in varied spatio-temporal scales. It could be concluded that NPK and BTH are the suitable tools for sustainable management of CMV disease.

 

 

1537-1547 Download
42

Increased non-enzymatic glycation reported in Apiaceae family extracts


Ramdan Btissam, El Cadi Hafssa and Nhiri Mohamed

Increased non-enzymatic glycation reported in Apiaceae family extracts


ABSTRACT:

Prevention and treatment of diabetic complications implicates inhibition of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated during diabetes. The present work is an investigation of In vitro anti-glycation activity of hydro-alcohol (HE), hot and cold aqueous extracts (HAE and CAE) of Moroccan plant species from Apiaceae family. Anti-glycation activity of seven plant species extracts (Ammodaucus leucotrichus, Daucus carota, Petroselinum sativum, Pimpinella anisum, Carum carvi, Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare), performed on BSA-Methylglyoxal system, was measured by fluorescence and native electrophoresis. Anti-oxidant activity and quantitative detection of chemical contents were assessed as well. Statistical analysis of principal components (PCA) allowed determining the implication of different parameters studied on glycation effect. Apiaceae family showed a strong dose-dependent glycation effect, activating both formation of Amadori products and fluorescent AGEs. This effect was stronger in Pimpinella anisum and Foeniculum vulgare extracts. Anti-glycation activity was recorded only at 1.5 mg/mL of extracts, with a significant correlation from antioxidant power that was between 65.29% and 81.05%. This family was generally poor in polyphenols and flavonoids with maximal values recorded in CAE (98.47±4.42 mg GA/g Dm) and HE (49.29±3.20 mg Qu/g Dm) respectively. The maximum value of tannins was 14.96±1.21 mg TA/g Dm. However, there was a significant richness in reducing sugar content. Anti-glycation effect of Apiaceae family lost its effectiveness with the increase of extract concentration. Glycation activity can be attributed to richness of this family by reduced sugar

1549-1556 Download
43

Establishment of pharmacognostic standards of different morphological parts of Camellia sinensis L. grown in Pakistan


Saima Rubab, Ghazala H Rizwani, Muhammad Mohtasheem Ul Hassan, Arjumand Iqbal Durrani, Uzma Hanif, Muhammad Ajaib, Iram Liaqat, Ayesha Sadiqa, Ayesha Shafi and Farah Batool

Establishment of pharmacognostic standards of different morphological parts of Camellia sinensis L. grown in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Camellia sinensis L. is well known plant, belongs to the family Theaceae. In the present investigation, the pharmacognostic standardization of stem leaf and seed was carried out. Macroscopic, microscopic, preliminary phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of different morphological parts of C. sinensis L. were carried out. The aim of present study is not only to evaluate novel and attractive features of such an important plant but also to elaborate the quality of this common plant which is considered most popular drink in this region. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation showing the analytical and diagnostic features of different morphological parts of the plants by sensory method is helpful for the authentication of the plant. Phytochemical screening assists in determining the primary and secondary metabolites like flavonoids, resins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, fixed oils, volatile oils, lignins, saponins, steroids, terpenes, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and amino acids. The investigation was made by the fluorescence analysis at both visible and UV light (i.e, 254 and 366λ max) which was not only useful in detecting the colored compounds visible to naked eye but also helpful in gaining the information about the chromophore group and conjugation system. It indicated that the purity and quality of the plant drug could be established by pharmacognostic evaluation method. The results shows the presence of primary metabolites in different quantity in various plant parts which are helpful for identification, therapeutic and pharmacological evaluation and even for the development of monograph as the food cum drug

1557-1565 Download
44

Relative efficacy and toxicity studies on three wild medicinal plants of Fabaceae: a pharmaceutical perspective


Urooj Khalil, Iram Fatima, Sobia Kanwal and Tariq Mahmood

Relative efficacy and toxicity studies on three wild medicinal plants of Fabaceae: a pharmaceutical perspective


ABSTRACT:

Naturally derived compounds with biological activities have positive effect on human health. In present study, ethanol, methanol and chloroform extracts of different parts of three plants viz. Dumasia villosa DC., Trifolium repens Linn. and Medicago laciniata var. laciniata belonging to family Fabaceae were prepared and various phytochemical tests were performed. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging assay, total reducing power assay and total antioxidant capacity. To determine toxicity potential of these extracts, radish seeds (phytotoxicity) and brine shrimp (cytotoxicity) assays were carried out. Methanol extract of D. villosa fruit revealed highest antioxidant and phytotoxic potential due to the presence of total phenolic and flavonoid contents while chloroform extracts of M. laciniata leaves and D. villosa fruit displayed highest cytotoxic potential. Hence, D. villosa fruit could be utilized in pharmaceutical industries against different ailments

1567-1573 Download
45

CRISPR- Cas9 mediated genome editing in plants against viruses: an updated review


Sohail Ahmad Jan, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Ibrahim Khan, Sarmir Khan, Arshad Iqbal and Haris Khurshid

CRISPR- Cas9 mediated genome editing in plants against viruses: an updated review


ABSTRACT:

The novel clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) method is one of the key tool for the modification of plant genome against biotic stress. Viruses inflict a greater extent of losses to crop yields in the form of destructive diseases. Conventional approaches of augmenting disease resistance are rendered ineffective by ever evolving viruses. Moreover, the relatively advanced CRISPR/ Cas9 system is a quick and efficient method to confer resistance to plants against a broad range of viruses. CRISPR/Cas9 precisely alters the host genome against specific virus. However the mutation rate and tolerance response vary with type of plant species and with use of different methods as well as the targeting sites. Several researchers used this system against both RNA and DNA types of viruses. Here, we discussed the advantages of CRISPR-Cas9 technique in plants against different types of viruses. The present review will be useful to scientists to understand the range of options offered by this technology for enhancing resistance in economically important plant species against multiple viruses.

 

1575-1578 Download
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