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 In vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antiphage activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

Wardah Qureshi, Fasiha Saeed, Munazza Ajaz and Sheikh Ajaz Rasool

The present study was conducted to estimate the antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris water extract and essential oil against multidrug resistant clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). Antiphage activity of thyme water extract was studied by phage inhibition assay. Thyme extract was prepared with water while oil was extracted from dried thyme plant using steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The mechanism of action of thyme water extract against bacterial cells and biofilm formation was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Thyme oil was fractionated by column chromatography (normal phase chromatography) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Bioactivity of oil fractions against bacteria was also studied. Thyme in both forms (oil and water extract) was effective against all the tested isolates however, Gram positive bacterial and Candida strains were found more sensitive compared to Gram negative bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of thyme oil for Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus was recorded to be 0.2 mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed disruptive properties of thyme against biofilm formation and significant distortion of bacterial cell morphology. Reduction in phage (in terms of plaque forming units percentile i.e. pfu) showed thyme water extract possessed antiviral potential.  

To Cite this article: Qureshi, W., F. Saeed, M. Ajaz and S.A. Rasool. 2022. In vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antiphage activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Pak. J. Bot., 54(3): DOI:  

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