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Year 2023 , Volume  55, Issue 3
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1

Effect of salinity on the growth and some morphological traits of pearl millet


Hassan Abu Qaoud, Ihsan Abu Ali, Heba Al-Fares, Tawfiq Qubbaj and Munqez J Y Shtaya

Effect of salinity on the growth and some morphological traits of pearl millet


ABSTRACT:

A study was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, An Najah National University, Palestine, during the 2016-2017 growing season to investigate the effects of different salinity levels on the growth and development of eight pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) accessions. Three salinity levels were used (freshwater as control, 75 and 150 mM NaCl), with three replicates. Increasing NaCl concentration resulted in a significant reduction in plant height. Accession IP6104 had the highest plant height, and accession ICMV155 was the shortest (84.05 and 75.60 cm, respectively). The average tiller number was not affected by salinity, while significant differences were observed among accessions on tiller number. Salinity decreased chlorophyll content and SPAD was reduced from 62.04 under the control treatment to 19.41 under 150 mM NaCl. Significant differences were observed in fresh and dry weight of roots and fresh weight of shoots, while dry weight of shoots was not significantly affected. The present study showed that pearl millet can grow under saline conditions. This indicates that this forage crop has good potential for cultivation in areas with high soil salinity

807-811 Download
2

Molecular and morphological evaluation of salt tolerance genes in advanced wheat lines (Part 1)


Aaqib Shaheen, Armghan Shahzad, Sabir Hussain Shah, Sahir Hameed Khattak, Sania Idrees and Siffat Ullah Khan

Molecular and morphological evaluation of salt tolerance genes in advanced wheat lines (Part 1)


ABSTRACT:

Soil salinity is a key problem in cereal crops production that affects the metabolic activities as well as plant growth ultimately leading to plant death. Toxic effect of salinity can lead to reduced plant growth and yield. To counter these effects, tolerant varieties need to be developed that should be able to survive in saline conditions. Therefore, experiment was designed to evaluate yield and yield attributes of 29 advanced wheat lines with four check varieties in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replication. The research was conducted at National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad in 2013-2014 winter season. These lines have been bred for salt ‘tolerant’ traits in view to bring saline soils under wheat cultivation. The eleven morphological parameters studied in this experiment were significant at (p≤0.05). An effective methodology was adopted for breeding programme to screen out genes that showed response to abiotic stresses using DNA markers. It was concluded from the correlation study that grain yield (kg/hectare) was significantly positive correlated with plant height (0.1802) but showed non-significant negative correlation with spike length (-0.1818), number of infertile spikelets per spike (-0.2352*), number of fertile spikelets per spike (-0.1121), and the number of fertile tillers, 1000 grain weight was significantly positive correlated with peduncle length (0.0019,), number of grains per spike (0.0823), grain yield per spike (0.0416) and showed negatively non-significant correlation with leaf area (-0.1357), number of infertile spikelets per spike (-0.1207), number of fertile spikelets per spike (-0.1523) and number of fertile tillers (-0.3135*).Morphological and molecular data confirmed that among all the 29 advanced wheat lines PA06B, PA02K, PA03B, PA02G and PA03C had the high potential for all the morphological parameters linked to the SSR markers. Five advanced wheat lines were selected on the basis of their high yield potential and its components and DNA markers linked to these morphological parameters compared with check varieties. Results of cluster analysis based on microsatellite data showed that the five genotypes were located in close proximity to each other in the same cluster but not clearly separated from the remaining 24 genotypes and check cultivars were also closely linked to these advanced wheat lines, all of which had been collected from the same habitat

813-823 Download
3

Varietal difference in Zn responsiveness of rice under normal and saline conditions


Zuhra Mazhar, Javaid Akhtar, Riaz Hussain Qureshi and Rashid Ahmad

Varietal difference in Zn responsiveness of rice under normal and saline conditions


ABSTRACT:

Being involved in several biochemical and physiological processes Zn is an essentially required micronutrient. A huge part of global population is Zn deficient due to low dietary Zn intake, leading to several health complications. The use of saline soils further decreases the concentration of Zn in crop plants. To find a sustainable solution, the current study was planned to assess the Zn responsiveness of different rice varieties in saline conditions. The high potential varieties can be used to fortify Zn in rice. In this study assessment of different rice varieties (Punjab basmati, BAS-515, KSK-133, KSK-434, PS-2, Super basmati, KS-282, Chenab basmati, Kissan Basmati, BAS-2000, Shaheen basmati, PK-386, IR-6 and Pak basmati) was done to screen out varieties with high Zn efficiency and uptake potential. Plants were grown under two salt levels (control, 75 mmol NaCl) and two levels of Zn (control, 4 µM Zn). The solution pH was kept at 5.5-6. Yoshida’s nutrient solution was used and 30 days old plants were harvested. There was a significant varietal difference in response to salt stress and Zn application as evaluated through different growth and chemical attributes. Based on the salt tolerance, Zn uptake and K-mean cluster analysis, the variety IR-6 of rice was evaluated to be more Zn responsive than other tested varieties. In conclusion, varietal difference in response to salt stress, Zn application and Zn accumulation was significantly evident and varietal screening should be considerd as a pivotal step prior to consideration for bio fortification of Zn in rice either for agronomic or genetic perspective

825-836 Download
4

Effects of salt stress on nutritional quality of orange-heading Chinese cabbage seedlings


Yanli Ding, Yuchen Liu, Liqiang Zhao, Mengling Zhou, Lugang Zhang, Guoze Wang and Jin Jia

Effects of salt stress on nutritional quality of orange-heading Chinese cabbage seedlings


ABSTRACT:

To study the effects of NaCl on nutritional quality in Chinese cabbage is of great significance to clarify the mechanism of salt stress on the formation of fruit and vegetable quality, orange-heading Chinese cabbage was treated with 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mmol/L NaCl, the effects of NaCl on the carotenoids, vitamin C, soluble sugar and crude fiber in leaves were studied, to study the gene expressions of key enzymes in carotenoid metabolism pathway, total RNA was extracted and the first strand of cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription. The results showed carotenoids in orange-heading Chinese cabbage treated with 100 mmol/L NaCl was higher than that of the control, and the difference was significant (p<0.05). The vitamin C increased first and then decreased, vitamin C in orange-heading Chinese cabbage treated with 150 mmol/L NaCl was higher than that of the control. The soluble sugar increased with the NaCl increase, and the difference was significant between the control and NaCl treatments. The crude fiber decreased first and then increased, and there was not much differences among different NaCl treatments. The genes expression of carotenoids synthesis enzymes PDS, ZDS and LYCE increased, and reached the highest under 100 mmol/L NaCl, then decreased under 150 mmol/L NaCl, while increased under 200 mmol/L NaCl. The results indicated NaCl stress might have effects on the carotenoid, vitamin C, soluble sugar and crude fiber in orange-heading Chinese cabbage. Especially the changes between the carotenoid contents and the genes expression of carotenoids synthesis enzymes were similar, therefore salt stress had a positive effect on the production of orange-heading Chinese cabbage carotenoids and it is likely influencing the quality of orange-heading Chinese cabbage

837-841 Download
5

Evaluation of drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) using physiological indices


Saba Tahir, Sara Zafar, M. Yasin Ashraf, Shagufta Perveen and Saqib Mahmood

Evaluation of drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) using physiological indices


ABSTRACT:

Drought is a threat to global food security. To develop drought tolerant high yielding maize varieties effective screening techniques for drought tolerance are required. In the current study, an effort is being made to screen maize cultivars for drought tolerance. Twelve maize cultivars were assessed for drought tolerance under laboratory conditions using physiological indices like germination stress tolerance index (GSI), shoot length stress tolerance index (SLSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI), fresh and dry biomass stress tolerance index (FWSI, DWSI). The data so collected was combined to various multivariate techniques which includes correlation and cluster analysis to evaluate the diversity for drought tolerance in maize cultivars. Positive and highly significant correlations were found between GSI, and DWSI. Cluster analysis classified 12 cultivars into three divergent groups. The members of first cluster (Malika, Sahiwal gold YY-15, MMRI yellow, Pop-Corn YPC-15) showed adequate degree of drought tolerance based on different physiological stress tolerance indices, whereas, cluster-2 included cultivars (Sweet Corn YSC-15, R1 czp, Pearl, Gohar 786) with moderate level of drought tolerance and cluster-3 included maize cultivars (Salman, Sahiwal 2002, Sadaf and Akbar) with lowest level of drought tolerance and did not give good performance. The results and scores achieved indicated that for drought tolerance in maize, physiological indices can be used as a screening tool

843-849 Download
6

Mitigation of drought induced effects in tomato (Solanum esculentum L.) using plant growth regulators


Amna Shahzadi, Khalid Hussain, Khalid Nawaz, Zainab Abdul Rouf, Mehreen Javeria, Iqra Iqbal, Noshia Arshad, Huma Riaz, Rida Akram, Rida Zainab and Durre Nayab

Mitigation of drought induced effects in tomato (Solanum esculentum L.) using plant growth regulators


ABSTRACT:

Experiments were performed to mitigate the drought-induced effects in two tomato varieties (Rio Grande and Yaqui) using plant growth regulators i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Drought stress (25 & 50%) reduced the growth, physiological, quality and yield attributes like the length of root and shoot, fresh and dry biomass of root ant shoot, chlorophyll pigments, proteins and carbohydrates contents, photosynthetic assimilation rate, rate of transpiration, intercellular CO2 and also stomatal conductance and fruit yield. Variety “Yaqui” showed more drastic effects of drought in response to growth and yield. Antioxidant activities of catalases (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased under drought stress. It was noted that drought levels (50%) showed more adverse effects as compared to 25% drought. Foliar applications of IAA and NAA overcome drought detrimental effect and enhanced the growth, quality and yield attributes that were severely affected by drought. The foliar application of NAA was more effective to overcome the drought effect than the IAA. It was concluded that the levels of drought stress (25 & 50%) markedly decreased the growth parameters, biochemical, physiological and yield attributes in both tomato varieties. Foliar applications of NAA and IAA mitigate the drought effects by increasing the growth, physiological attributes that resulted better yield of tomato under drought stress

851-863 Download
7

Effect of cadmium stress on morphological parameteres in different tomato (Solaunm lycopersium L) genotypes


Muhammad Mazhar Hussain, Asif Saeed, Muhammad Yasin, Faqiha-Tul-Jannat, Ghulam Muhammad and Samiullah Khan

Effect of cadmium stress on morphological parameteres in different tomato (Solaunm lycopersium L) genotypes


ABSTRACT:

One of the key retrain to crop floras specially vegetables is being the heavy metal burden left as industrial waste. Current study’s emphasis on the identification of the greater parents for the development of hybrid varieties with higher yield and improved quality traits of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under cadmium stress condition. Thirteen genotypes of tomato were evaluated via completely randomized design using two levels of cadmium, i.e. 3 ppm, 6 ppm along with control. Important morphological growth traits of tomato plant such as length of root and shoot, weight of fresh and dry root, weight of fresh and dry shoot and metal contents in whole plant were assessed. The aim was to select best genotypes to be used in future breeding program on the basis of metal contents. All genotypes used in study exhibited alteration in studied traits at both levels of cadmium. Shoot length of genotype Roma and CLN-2123 A was least affected even at 6 ppm of cadmium. Root length of genotype Sitara TS-01 was least affected at 3 and 6 ppm levels while genotype CLN-2123 A stayed unaffected at 3 ppm while slightly reduced at 6 ppm. Fresh root weight was found higher in genotype Sitara TS-01 at both levels of cadmium. Genotype CLN-2123 A stored more metal contents in all body parts and showed least effect at dry root weight, dry shoot weight and root length while exhibited reduction in shoot length, fresh root and shoot weight. So genotype CLN-2123 A is suitable for bioremediation of soil while is not suitable for human consumption. Genotype Picdeneato had accumulated least metal contents at both levels, therefore it may be advised for human consumption although grown at both contaminated and sewage water irrigated soils

865-872 Download
8

Evaluation of yield components and heat susceptibility of Pakistani wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm subjected to induced terminal heat stress


Shabbir Hussain, Bushra Sadia, Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat and Faisal Saeed Awan

Evaluation of yield components and heat susceptibility of Pakistani wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm subjected to induced terminal heat stress


ABSTRACT:

A set of 205 Pakistani wheat genotypes was evaluated to access the endogenous potential for heat tolerance and agro-morphological genetic diversity in wheat population subjected to induced terminal heat stress. About 10 out of 21 agro-morphological traits, showed higher coefficient of variation (CV%) in comparison to control, which was directly associated with extent of variability in subjected population. Various traits showed a strong positive correlation in case of treatment and control. First two axes of bi-plot, F1 and F2 of principal component, PC1 as well as PC2 explained 17% and 12% for year 2017-18, 16% and 15% for year 2018-19, as well as 14% and 12% variability under control conditions respectively. Total of 8 genotypes showed heat susceptibility index (HSI≤ 0.5), hence designated as highly heat tolerant (HHT) genotypes. These genotypes also showed ≤ 20% cumulative reduction in 1000-kernel weight in comparison to control. On the bases of green leaf retention (GLR) scale, population was classified into 4 categories i.e., 11, 11% resistant (R), 48, 41% moderately resistant (MR), 22, 41% moderately susceptible (MS) and 19, 7% susceptible (S) during year 2017-18 and 2018-19 respectively. This data will be used to perform genome wide association studies (GWAS) to identify QTLs associated with heat stress tolerance

873-891 Download
9

Screening of Mardi rice accessions for salinity tolerance at seedling stage based on growth performance and molecular analysis


Site Noorzuraini Binti Abd Rahman, Mohd Shahril Firdaus Bin Abdul Razak, Mohd Ramdzan Bin Othman and Nur Idayu Binti Abd Rahim

Screening of Mardi rice accessions for salinity tolerance at seedling stage based on growth performance and molecular analysis


ABSTRACT:

Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors that can interfere with rice production in many rice-growing areas. In Malaysia, many major rice growing areas are located near to coastal saline land. Therefore, identification of potential rice accessions for future breeding program for salinity tolerance is crucial. A total of 28 rice accessions were selected for this study. The screening was performed at EC=12dSm-1 under controlled environment at seedling stage. Shoot length, root length, biomass, percentage of surviving seedlings, and leaf injury score were used to assess seedling growth performance. Whereas, the molecular analysis was performed using eight Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers for salinity tolerance. Significant variations were shown for all the recorded traits among the rice accessions, treatments, and environments. Lui Oui, Boro Shunga, and Khao Tah Haeng showed the highest shoot length under salinity condition with the readings at 34.61 cm, 36.47 cm, 35.45 cm, respectively. The rice accessions also showed higher biomass production and lower leaf injury score. The molecular analysis observed the average PIC value was 0.741, with values ranging from 0.545 to 0.907. The SSR marker, RM10720 was found to be superior for analysis of genetic diversity as shown by the highest PIC value. By comparing the two dendrograms, four rice varieties namely Lui Oui, Sinandomeng, Khao Tah Haeng, and Kao Saard 108 were clustered with Pokkali in both dendrograms. Considering the performance under salinity condition and confirmation with molecular analysis, Lui Oui, Sinandomeng, Khao Tah Haeng, and Kao Saard 108 are considered potential donors that can be used in breeding programmes for the development of salinity tolerant rice cultivars. The SSR markers can be used in screening and identification of salinity tolerance genotypes.

 

893-902 Download
10

Effect of deficit irrigation on water status, metabolic characters, fruiting, yield, and quality of clementine trees under Tunisian semi-arid conditions


Mohamed Karim Aounallah, Neirouz Ben Krima, Naziha El Bey, Chahine Karmous, Taoufik Bettaieb and Ali Sahli

Effect of deficit irrigation on water status, metabolic characters, fruiting, yield, and quality of clementine trees under Tunisian semi-arid conditions


ABSTRACT:

Water scarcity is one of the most serious threats facing humanity, and it is primordial to adopt water-saving strategies to improve irrigation efficiency in agriculture. The current study sought to determine the impact of a partial root-zone drying technique (PRD) used during fruit growth phases II and III (50% of crop water requirement) on water status, yield, and metabolic and technological characteristics of Citrus clementine MA3 during two consecutive seasons (2016-2017 and 2017-2018) under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. The results of this research revealed that compared to control irrigation, the partial root drying irrigation system decreased the leaf water potential (Ψl) by 35.9% and 12.9%, the leaf water content by 5.2% and 3.2%, and the chlorophyll index by 8.3% and 4.3%, but increased leaf temperature by 2.3% and 3.2%, leaf sugar content by 6.5% and 7.1%, proline content by 8.4% and 18%, and membrane permeability by 6.4% and 7.5%, respectively, in fruit growth stages II and III. The reaction of clementine trees to the application of PRD appeared clearly in the second year by reducing the fruit size by 7.1% and 7.3%, respectively, in phases II and III of fruit growth. PRD did not affect fruit number or yield in the first year but reduced them by 18% and 16% in the second year, respectively. PH was affected by the partial root drying and showed an increase of 0.9% in the second year of the experiment. Fruit weight, TSS, total sugar content, titratable acidity, and maturity index were maintained under partial root drying. Although the non-significant effect of PRD on quality attributes increased slightly, the TSS by 1.7 %, the total sugar content by 1.8 %, the maturity index by 2.5 %, and titratable acidity by 0.6 %. Despite the decrease in chlorophyll index, some water status-related characteristics, and a slight decrease in fruit size and yield, PRD was considered an effective water-saving strategy with no discernible effect on fruit technological attributes.

 

903-914 Download
11

Osmotic adjustment and metabolic changes under drought stress conditions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes


Liaquat Ali Bhutto, Colin P. Osborne and W. Paul Quick

Osmotic adjustment and metabolic changes under drought stress conditions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes


ABSTRACT:

Osmotic adjustment (OA) of cells helps to conserve the water balance of the plant, and this adjustment is generally achieved through increased amounts of various common solutes. The core objective of this study is to determine whether the active accumulation of compatible solutes in salt tolerant accessions of bread wheat confers cross-tolerance to drought stress conditions. The work determines whether the salt tolerant cultivars W4909 and W4910 may also tolerate drought stress through osmotic adjustment and metabolic changes. The salt tolerant cultivars W4909 and W4910 had significantly higher amounts of total identified carbohydrates and amino acids in the evening and morning of the fifteenth day of drought stress as compared to Yecora Rojo. This suggests that W4909 and W4910 maintained efficient osmotic adjustment to conserve water, prevent the denaturation of soluble proteins and regulate ion transport. Under drought stress conditions, the salt tolerant cultivars responded by overproduction of different types of inorganic and organic solutes metabolites as osmolytes, showing that directed breeding for salt tolerance may confer cross-tolerance to drought in this major cereal crop

915-923 Download
12

Influence of native weeds species on germination, growth performance and survival of barley seedlings


Basira Sher, Mudassir Asrar, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Shamim Gul, Manzoor Iqbal Khattaak and Shaheen Wali

Influence of native weeds species on germination, growth performance and survival of barley seedlings


ABSTRACT:

Allelopathy denotes to a biological marvel wherever the plants interferer plants by discharge of carbon-based chemical (allelo-chemical) in nearby soil atmosphere as water leachate or root exudate. Weeds extracts produced allelo-chemicals which might be prevent the many crop seeds germinations. The entire study was conducted to evaluate the properties of aqueous extract of eight native weeds specie (Alhagi maurorum, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus viridis, Avena sativa, Chenopodium album, Convolvulus arvensis, Euphorbia helioscopia, Sisymbrium irio) on final germination % age and rate of germination, length of root and shoot of seedling and day of survival after germination of barley plants in the laboratory of botany department university of Balochistan Quetta-Pakistan. Aqueous extract of two weeds (Convolvulus arvensis and Euphorbia helioscopia) were extra active in seed germination stopping (65%) of barley as compared to other weeds species which showed 70-85% germination. The minimum survival days after germination of seedling was noted for Amaranthus spinosus, Convolvulus arvensis and Sisymbrium irio which showed 0% germination after Day 12 and 16. Data also indicated that the barley seed showed significant decline in velocity of propagation, germination indices and weight of seedling under the influence of all leaf’s weeds extract even though mean germination time was found highest as noted to control

925-931 Download
13

Morphological and biochemical responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to oil field wastewater pollution


Muhammad Mudasar Aslam, Hassan Shabir, Ghazala Nawaz, Shafiq Ur Rehman and Amana Khatoon

Morphological and biochemical responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to oil field wastewater pollution


ABSTRACT:

Agricultural sector is challenged with a number of factors including those arising from rapid industrialization, which is the key point responsible for reductions in food production. Industrial waste oil contamination has been determined with negative impacts on plants. Although several studies have demonstrated the impact of crude oil on crops, but the effects of oil field wastewater concentrations on maize growth and biochemical activities are poorly understood. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 1, 5 and 10% oil field waste water concentrations on morphological and biochemical growth parameters of maize. Both oil field wastewater and soil samples contained heavy metals including Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu, Cd and Cr. Gradual decrease in seed germination (%) was observed with ‎‎the increase in oil field wastewater concentrations ‎after 48, 72 and 96 h. Application of oil field wastewater concentrations reduced seedling growth including shoot/root ‎length and number of leaves. Ionic quantification analyses showed that Na+ and Ca+2 ions decreased in shoot while increased in roots. Potassium (K+) ions increased in shoot while decreased in roots at 5 and 10% oil field wastewater concentration‎. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll “a”, “b” and carotenoids) and total soluble sugar significantly decreased in maize seedlings as the concentrations of the oil field wastewater increased. Higher concentrations of oil field wastewater significantly increased antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase enzymes in maize seedlings to cope with the stress conditions. These results suggested that oil field wastewater adversely affects maize morphological and biochemical growth parameters.

 

933-940 Download
14

Methods for rapid seed germination of Broussonetia papyrifera


Jin Qi, Wu Liang, Zhao Yunlin, Yang Guiyan, Tang Tianci, Ma Yingzi and Xu Zhenggang

Methods for rapid seed germination of Broussonetia papyrifera


ABSTRACT:

Seed germination is one of the main methods of reproduction and expansion of the distribution area of Broussonetia papyrifera in the wild. There are many factors affecting seed germination, such as sterilization, temperature, light and exogenous hormones. The sterilization treatment with 70% EtOH for 30 seconds and 0.1% HgCl2 for six minutes show the best disinfection effect and the least toxicity. The optimum temperature and light for seed germination were 30 C and 16 h/d light respectively. 6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and gibberellins (GA3) improved seed germination, and GA3 had a better effect, especially at the concentration of 1600 mg/L. NAA had inhibitory effect on seed germination. Our study may help develop a seed germination system for B. papyrifera and be a valuable method for the conservation and regeneration of seedbanks.

 

941-948 Download
15

Molecular and functional analysis of the flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) gene in Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)


Huanhuan Xu, Yi Li, Jiayi Xing, Lecheng Liu and Yongqin Wang

Molecular and functional analysis of the flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) gene in Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Secondary metabolites contribute to the biological activities and medicinal attributes of plants. Flavonoids are major metabolites in Allium fistulosum. Flavanone-3-hydroxylase is a key enzyme in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the molecular basis of F3H in A. fistulosum is still unknown. In the present study, F3H was cloned from A. fistulosum and named AfF3H; this gene contains 1269 bp and encodes 368 amino acids. Subcellular localization results showed that AfF3H was located in the cytosol. The catalytic activity analysis of the AfF3H recombinant protein showed that the protein catalyses the formation of dihydroquercetin and dihydrokaempferol from eriodyctiol and naringenin. Furthermore, the expression of AfF3H was specific and closely related to flavonoid content. The increased expression of F3H was induced by cold stress. Simultaneously, the content of total flavonoids in Welsh onion also increased with the expression of AfF3H. These results showed that cold stress induced the expression of AfF3H and increased the metabolic flux of flavonoids. The results of this study suggest that AfF3H plays an essential role in flavonoid biosynthesis in A. fistulosum

949-955 Download
16

Genetic and expressional evidence displays functional distinction of cotton basic helix-loop-helix proteins in Arabidopsis trichome initiation


Anh Phu Nam Bui

Genetic and expressional evidence displays functional distinction of cotton basic helix-loop-helix proteins in Arabidopsis trichome initiation


ABSTRACT:

The cultivated tetraploid cotton species (AD genomes) were originated from two ancestral diploid species (A and D genomes). While the ancestral A-genome species produce spinnable fibers, the D- genome species do not. Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes originating from seed coat epidermal cells, and currently there is an immense interest in understanding the process of fiber initiation and development. Current knowledge demonstrates that there is a great of deal of resemblance in initiation mechanism between Arabidopsis trichome and cotton fiber. In this study, comparative functional studies between A genome and D-genome species in cotton by using Arabidopsis trichome initiation as a model was performed. Four cotton genes TTG3, MYB2, DEL61 and DEL65 were amplified from A-genome and D-genome species and transformed into their homolog trichomeless mutants Arabidopsis ttg1, gl1, and gl3egl3, respectively. Our data showed that the transgenic plants expressing TTG3 and MYB2 genes from A genome and D-genome species complement the ttg1 and gl1 mutants, respectively. It was also discovered that complete absences of two functional basic helix loop helix (bHLH) proteins (DEL65/DEL61) in D- diploid species and one (DEL65) that is functional in A-genome species, but not from D-genome species. This observation is consistent with the natural phenomenon of spinnable fiber production in A- genome species and absence in D-genome species. These results suggested that MYB2, TTG3 and DEL65, when expressed in Arabidopsis, regulated the regulatory network genes during the trichome initiation process

957-964 Download
17

Effect of NaH2PO4 on differentiation of in vitro propagated bird nest fern (Asplenium nidus L.)


Mariam Raziq, Syeda Kahkashan Kazmi, Asma Nasib, Faheeda Soomro and Saifullah Khan

Effect of NaH2PO4 on differentiation of in vitro propagated bird nest fern (Asplenium nidus L.)


ABSTRACT:

Nutrients are sources of nourishment and survival for plants. Salt stress changes the morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants. Bird nest fern (Asplenium nidus) is typically an exotic plant and belongs to the fern family. Spores of Asplenium nidus were used as an explant for In vitro propagation. After sterilization, the spores of Asplenium nidus were sprinkled over on MS initiation media of different strengths (1/2MS, 1/4 MS, 3/4 MS and Full MS). It was experiential that varying strength of nutrient components of the media has shown markedly influence. It was found that 90% highest number of green prothalli, larger in size were germinated on 1/2 strength MS media. Prothalli shifted onto multiplication media which correspond 1/2 strength MS medium supplemented with different growth regulators BAP (1-4 mg/L) and NAA (0.5-0.1 mg/L), 3% sugar and 0.25% w/v phytagel. It is observed that the F7 media showed an intense effect on the multiplication of plants, Plantlets multiplied vigorously were transferred onto differentiation media. In vitro differentiation of Asplenium nidus plantlets were optimized on differentiation media, MF media which corresponds with half-strength MS media supplemented with NaH2PO4, and MK medium supplemented with KH2PO4 containing BAP (2mg/L) and NAA (0.5mg/L), 3% sugar and 0.25 w/v solidifying agent (phytagel) was incorporated in each combination at pH 5.75, Media containing NaH2PO4 showed different degrees of differentiation as compared to the media correspond with KH2PO4. The effect of liquid and solid supporting media on the rapid growth of micro propagated fern species Asplenium nidus was also studied about the accessibility of nutrients and water in the culture medium. In this study, two different types of media were used each restrain half-strength MS media containing growth regulators BAP (2mg/L), NAA (0.5mg/L) and IBA (2mg/L) respectively, along with the addition of 200 mg/L NaH2PO4. When shoots attained a sufficient length and become differentiated, then plants were transferred into auxin-rich media. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of different types and levels of auxins in rooting media. Differentiated plantlets were consequently shifted on medium for proliferation of root. Field trials experiments were designed and plantlets of Asplenium nidus were acclimatized in the greenhouse

965-972 Download
18

Development of low lignin Eucalyptus camaldulensis through down-regulation of endogenous cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR)


Edwin John, Muhammad Irfan, Syed Farhat Ali, Asma Maqbool, Aftab Bashir and Kauser Abdulla Malik

Development of low lignin Eucalyptus camaldulensis through down-regulation of endogenous cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR)


ABSTRACT:

Renewable fuel resources can provide an alternative to meet the energy demands and compensate the diminishing resources of fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass from non-crop plants can provide an alternative for the production of biofuels. However, presence of lignin in lignocellulosic biomass is a limiting factor to achieve industrial objectives. Industrial methods for the removal of lignin from lignocellulosic biomass are cumbersome, inefficient and expensive. The objective of this study was to produce lignocellulosic biomass with low lignin contents by down regulation of endogenous Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (CCR) in Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Lignin downregulation was accomplished through RNAi. Putative transgenic plants were screened for the presence of transgene through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CCR expression profiling, lignin estimation and effects of lignin down regulation leading to morphological changes were studied in transgenic and control E. camaldulensis plants. Real time Reverse transcriptase PCR for expression profiling of endogenous CCR gene revealed down regulation of CCR RNA transcripts from 72% to 80% in transgenic as compared to control and wild type plants. CCR enzyme activity was significantly reduced in transgenic plant as compared to control plant. Lignocellulosic biomass from stem of transgenic plants showed reduction in Klason lignin to 25.5% in transgenic plants as compared to wild type E. camaldulensis. Transgenic plants showed ~28% height reduction and ~53% stem girth reduction in comparison to untransformed control plants. Transformation efficiency of 0.13% was observed after successful transformation, regeneration, selection, molecular screening and expression profiling of the transgenic plants. This study confirmed role of CCR downregulation leading to lignin reduction in E. camaldulensis through RNAi for development of lignocellulosic biomass with low lignin contents. 

973-981 Download
19

Effect of application of growth elicitors and in silico analysis of regulatory proteins in sweet pea (Pisum sativum L.) against drought stress


Muhammad Naveed Shahid, Safia Shoukat, Adil Jamal and Sana Khalid

Effect of application of growth elicitors and in silico analysis of regulatory proteins in sweet pea (Pisum sativum L.) against drought stress


ABSTRACT:

Drought stress has an impact on the growth and yield of sweet pea (Pisum sativum). Drought stress has a negative impact on morphological and physiological characteristics including as height, shoot and root length, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, anthocyanin, chlorophyll a and b, soluble protein, and H2O2. The salicylic acid (SA) and ascorbic acid (AA) are used to modulate plant response against dry conditions and provide protection against oxidative damage. To overcome this loss SA and AA (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM) were used by foliar application. Lab work was performed to illustrate the harmful effects of drought stress and beneficial role of SA and AA on P. sativum. These effects of drought stress were analysed by different computational analyses. The drought stress is very much effective at proteomic level and some proteins like PIP2-2, DREB2A and 14-3-3 like proteins are activated which prevent the plant from such dangerous effects. The activation of these proteins is up-regulated by SA application. So in dehydrated conditions it would be better choice to use SA and AA to compensate the shortage of water for plant. Because these compounds provide resistance against drought stress and restore the damages caused by drought stress and enable the plant to survive in such harmful conditions

983-993 Download
20

Flavonoid detection and antioxidant estimation in Rosa damascena Mill. growing in Taif and Al-Madinah cities, Saudi Arabia


Amal Y. Aldhebiani and Weaam A. Yaslam

Flavonoid detection and antioxidant estimation in Rosa damascena Mill. growing in Taif and Al-Madinah cities, Saudi Arabia


ABSTRACT:

The genus Rosa L. belongs to the important family Rosaceae. Some taxa in Rosaceae produce delicious and beneficial fruits and some are good source of wood. In Saudi Arabia, Rosa L. is represented by different species, one of which is Rosa damascena Mill. R. damascena grows in many localities in Saudi Arabia. The most popular cities in growing rose are Taif and Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah. There are some differences between the taxa growing in both localities. Some refers to the chemical components and some are regarding to their harvesting time. This work aimed to find scientific phytochemical informations about both roses. In this paper the phenolic and antioxidant compounds were investigated and recorded in taxa from both locations. Paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography and High-performance chromatography were used to detect the flavonoids compounds and to give the antioxidant estimation. Quercetin and Letulin were the main agylcons presented in Rosa. Qercetin represents the flavonol group while Letulin represents the flavones one. Some of their glycosides are common in both Taif and Al-Madinah roses such as: Quercetin-3- arabinoside, Quercetin-7-glucoside and Apigenin-7-rhamnoglucoside. On the other hand, some flavonoids are restricted to the plants from one area only. For example, Gossyptin-3-monogalactoside was observed in Al-Madinah samples, while it was undetected in Taif samples. In contrast Quercetin-3-rhamnoside, Quercetin-3-monorhamnoside and Kaempferol-3-monoglucuronide were detected in Taif samples only. Finally, the antioxidant estimation of both localities showed that the Flavonoids content in Almadinah Rose leaves were very much greater than Taif Rose leaves

995-999 Download
21

Analysis of key biological pathways for sugar accumulation during kernel development in different genotypes of sweet corn


Huilin Yu, Yuqun Wu, Yang Zhang and Yanbo Wang

Analysis of key biological pathways for sugar accumulation during kernel development in different genotypes of sweet corn


ABSTRACT:

Sweet corn as a nutritious, grain and vegetable crop plays a key role in the structural adjustment of the plant industry. The analysis of metabolic pathways of sugar accumulation during sweet corn kernel development is important for sweet corn breeding and efficient development. In this study, we used super sweet corn (T) and non-sweet corn (NT) as screened materials to carry out transcriptome analysis involved phenotypic parameters and physiological characteristics under two key periods of kernel development. Results showed that the key stage for the formation of sugar accumulation differences between super T and NT was 12 days after filling (GP12) to 20 days after filling (GP20), the proportion of soluble sugars of T decreased significantly compared with NT during this stage, while the proportion of sucrose and glucose of T increased significantly compared with NT. In terms of phenotypes, analysis showed that there was no significant difference in sugar accumulation between the two genotypes of sweet corn seeds at the two filling stages of GP12 and GP20.  Transcriptome analysis revealed that 3175 genes were up-regulated and 3189 genes were up-regulated in the T and NT genotypes of sweet corn at the GP12 filling stage, while 3966 genes were up-regulated and 2809 genes were up-regulated at the GP20 filling stage, and clustering analysis indicated that LOC100382789, Zm00001d027703, and LOC1003043343 were significantly different from others. Meanwhile, GO analysis showed that seven biological processes, including Cyanoamino acid metabolism and Alanine aspartate, were the key regulatory pathways for sugar accumulation in sweet corn at GP12 and GP20 stages, among which Linoleic acid metabolism was significantly expressed in the middle and late stages of filling. In addition, KEGG enrichment differential analysis revealed that the key gene metabolic pathways Circadian rhythm-plant and Fatty acid metabolism were the key metabolic pathways for metabolic regulation of sugar accumulation in sweet corn. The study also mapped the target genes involved in metabolic pathways found by the KEGG enrichment analysis at the BP level, of which revealed 15 key metabolic pathways that are likely to be intrinsic to the differences in sugar accumulation between the two genotypes sweet corn. Sweet corn of super sweet genotype (T) could complete sugar accumulation through three types of key gene regulation, seven metabolic pathways and 15 metabolic pathways during the key stages of 12 days after filling (GP12) to 20 days after filling (GP20).

 

1001-1012 Download
22

Molecular characterization of doum palm (Hyphaene compressa) from selected regions of Kenya us­ing chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSR) markers


Allen Johnny Borlay, Cecilia Mbithe Mweu, Steven Ger Nyanjom, Kevin Mbogo Omolo and Agnes Omire

Molecular characterization of doum palm (Hyphaene compressa) from selected regions of Kenya us­ing chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSR) markers


ABSTRACT:

Doum palm (Hyphaene compressa) is an enduring member of the Arecaceae family of plants, an essential multipurpose plant with exceptional features that serve as a socioeconomic resource for people in the East Africa region. The unavailability of genetic and genomic data leads to difficulties enhancing such a crop, thereby preventing the actualization of its agronomic and breeding potential, hence the need for characterization. This study included 64 genotypes of doum palm collected from four locations in Kenya and ten polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers. Locus Among the ten polymorphic cpSSRs studied, the OPCG13 locus exhibited the highest observed and expected heterozygosity. Across all loci, we detected the mean value of 10.145 for the gene flow parameter. The mean number of significant allele frequencies for the 79 alleles detected was 0.75, with a range of 0.531 to 0.89. The median was 0.0036, 0.341, and 0.275 for observed heterozygosity, predicted heterozygosity, and PIC, respectively. All 64 genotypes were sorted into three main categories using neighbor-joining clustering and STRUCTURE analysis. At the population level, PCoA analysis explained 51.66 percent of the variation. As a result of these findings, cpSSR markers were used for the first time to characterize selected doum palm germplasm, which signifies that such a marker helps study doum palms at the molecular level. Our findings indicate that doum palm species in Kenya have a reasonable genetic variation coupled with considerable heterozygosity; consequently, these doum palm genetic variations are essential for the genetic improvement, breeding, and conservation initiatives of doum palm genotypes in Kenya.

 

1013-1021 Download
23

Transcriptome analysis of Lycoris radiata bulb tips at different developmental stages


Xueru Jiang, Xuying Wei, Huiting Chen, Yao Zhang, Meixia Ma and Junhuo Cai

Transcriptome analysis of Lycoris radiata bulb tips at different developmental stages


ABSTRACT:

Lycoris radiata (L’Herit.) Herb is a commonly used medicinal-ornamental herb in China, and its growth rhythm is characterized as “flowers and leaves not meeting.” In this research, transcriptomic analyses of L. radiata bulb tips were conducted at six developmental stages, specifically: LO (leafing out), RLE (rapid leaf extension), LMa (leaf maturity), LWi (leaf withering), Dor (dormancy), and Flo (flowering), to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). There were 6,157 DEGs in RLE vs. LO, 18,193 in LMa vs. RLE, 4,362 in LWi vs. LMa, 5,800 in Dor vs. LWi and 7,373 in Flo vs. Dor. The KEGG pathways ‘hormone signal transduction’ and ‘starch and sucrose metabolism’ and the biological processes ‘carbohydrate metabolism’ and ‘stress response’ were significantly enriched by upregulated DEGs in LMa vs. RLE during leaf development. KEGG pathways of ‘biosynthesis of amino acids,’ ‘circadian rhythm – plant,’ and ‘gap junction’ were significantly enriched by upregulated DEGs in LWi vs. LMa, Dor vs. LWi, and Flo vs. Dor, respectively, during floral differentiation and flowering. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) showed that genes encoding ribosomal proteins were identified as hub genes in both the RLE and Flo stages, and genes encoding 16.0 kDa heat shock protein and heat stress transcription Factor C-2a-like were respectively identified as RLE and LWi stage-specific hub genes. Together, these analyses provide a valuable reference for studying the molecular mechanism of L. radiata growth rhythm from the aspects of temperature adaptability, sugar signal transduction, sugar metabolism, and circadian rhythm

1023-1034 Download
24

Morphological characterizations of bud, anther and microspores in Ngoc Linh ginseng - Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. var. vietnamensis (Araliaceae)


Tu Xuan Dinh, Tien Ton Nu Bao Huyen and Ly Minh Nguyen

Morphological characterizations of bud, anther and microspores in Ngoc Linh ginseng - Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. var. vietnamensis (Araliaceae)


ABSTRACT:

Ngoc Linh ginseng (Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. var. vietnamensis) is a valuable and endemic medicinal plant of Vietnam. Propagation of Ngoc Linh ginseng plants is mainly dependent on seeds produced via self-fertilization. However, little is known about reproduction development in Ngoc Linh ginseng. In this study, several morphological characteristics of inflorescences, floral buds, anthers, and microspores were observed and described. The results showed that floral buds ranged from 0.5 to 4.4 mm, anthers from 0.48±0.28 to 1.56±0.45 mm, and microspores from 20.82±2.49 to 41.22 ± 1.44 µm. A strong correlation between bud length, anther length and developmental stage of microspores were shown, which were 0.905 and 0.781, respectively. Moreover, microspores of different developmental stages in a single anther were observed. These study results can be used to improve the sexual reproduction of this ginseng

1035-1040 Download
25

Evaluation of the antioxidant properties and antifungal activity of methanolic extract obtained from Nassauvia dentata Griseb. (Asteraceae)


Carlos Schneider, Patricio Zapata and Makarena Gonzalez-Reyes

Evaluation of the antioxidant properties and antifungal activity of methanolic extract obtained from Nassauvia dentata Griseb. (Asteraceae)


ABSTRACT:

Nassauvia dentata Griseb. (Asteraceae), is distributed from the mountain range in the Bío Bio region to Magallanes region in Chile. In this investigation, an antioxidant effect evaluation of N. dentata leaves and stems was performed with 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) cationic radical and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, expressed in equivalents. The concentration of the methanolic extract obtained from N. dentata (MEN), required to inhibit 50% of ABTS absorbance and DPPH absorbance (IC50 value), was calculated..In a kinetic assay performed with ABTS and determined with the IC50 value of 0.737 mg mL-1, the maximum effect was detected after 30 minutes (min), with an inhibition of 96.44 ± 2.44%. DPPH kinetic assay was made with the IC50 value of 1.562 mg mL-1 and after 20 min it was observed the maximum point of inhibition level, of 79.92 ± 3.39%. Consequently the assay of total polyphenols (TP) was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Also phytochemical assays were made to recognize the secondary metabolites, present in the plant material and in MEN. A bigger presence of tannins, anthraquinones heterosides, steroid derivatives, coumarins, and flavonoids were found. Evaluation of the antifungal effect assay was made using different concentrations of MEN against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Ceratobasidiaceae). It was possible to determine the maximum inhibition level of growing of the mushroom at 20 mg mL-1 of MEN concentration, on average 77 percent.  The results of the present study indicate the presence of polyphenols in this plant, and might be considered as a source of bioactive compounds

1041-1049 Download
26

Characteristics of eighteen essential oils on Echinochloa crus galli and Galium aparine seedling growth

 

 


Jingjing Xu, Haodong Bai, Zhengdong Bai and Zuren Li

Characteristics of eighteen essential oils on Echinochloa crus galli and Galium aparine seedling growth

 

 


ABSTRACT:

The phytotoxicity characteristics of plants can be successfully used for weed control. To enrich the variety of plant-derived herbicides, we extracted the essential oils from 18 plant species by steam distillation and assayed their herbicidal effects on barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and cleavers (Galium aparine).  When the target weeds were treated with the 18 essential oils at 0.3 g mL-1, the herbicidal effect on the target weeds was above 80%. The lavender, lemon, and chamomile essential oils showed the best herbicidal effects. The composition of the essential oils was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Menthol acetate, linalool, cinene, glycerol triacetate, and 1-menthol, all of which are terpenoids, were found in relatively high levels in the essential oils. We tested each of these five compounds individually for their inhibiting effects and found that the order of effectiveness was: menthyl acetate> glycerol triacetate> linalool> l-menthol > cinene. The five compounds were tested in combination, in which case, their herbicidal effects were reduced. When barnyard grass was treated with lemon essential oil, the defense enzyme activities were found to increase first and then to decrease with the time up to 48h. Clorophyll a and b levels decreased with treatment time, whereby total chlorophyll content also decreased. These investigations present the herbicidal activity of lavender, lemon, and chamomile essential oils and the active compounds. These identified active substances in the essential oils and their inhibitory effects provide references for the development of bio-herbicides from essential oils for the control of weeds in agricultural system

1051-1063 Download
27

Adaptive mechanisms of conservation populations of rare and endemic species of Kamelinia tianschanica F.O. Khass & I.I. Malzev in Uzbekistan


Dilovar Tolibdjonovna Khamraeva, Rainer W. Bussmann, Ozodbek Sultankulovich Abduraimov and Nodira Kamiljanovna Rakhimova

Adaptive mechanisms of conservation populations of rare and endemic species of Kamelinia tianschanica F.O. Khass & I.I. Malzev in Uzbekistan


ABSTRACT:

The current paper presents a data on the adaptation mechanisms of populations of an endemic species Kamelinia tianschanica F.O. Khass. & I.I. Malzev under conservation status. With this example we tried to highlight the adaptation mechanism in conservation populations of plant species in Uzbekistan, a country rich in endemic genera especially from Umbelliferae (Apiaceae Lindl.). The rare species Kamelinia tianschanica belongs to the respective endemic genus of Central Asia. We studied the features of morphogenesis and ontogenetic structure of populations, and the current state of Kamelinia tianschanica populations was estimated based on a set of factors. Ontogenetic stages are allocated. According to the results of our work, the ontogeny of the species can be divided into 3 periods and 7 age stages, characterized as shortened due to the elimination of a senile age stage and complicated by the presence of renewal shoots, allowing vegetative reproduction. The long duration of the middle-aged generative stage leads to rapid death and thus elimination of a senile period. Ramets lead to the shortening of the juvenile stage of development. The spectrum of populations with regard to the ontogenetic structure is left-sided, centered on virginal individuals, with the highest proportion of middle-aged generative individuals. In the studied populations, young plants (juvenile, immature) make up the smallest number, due to various factors of elimination, including irregular seed propagation. Adaptive conservation mechanisms include planting of some vegetative propagated individuals in the population to foster reproduction of Kamelinia tianschanica. Additionally, the location of a population’s natural area is an important factor for the conservation of the species

1065-1074 Download
28

Dendrochronological investigations reveal declining growth rate of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. populations from 1840 to 2017 in Kashmir Himalayas


Muhammad Sohail, Hamayun Shaheen, Raja Waqar Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui and Moin-Ud-Din Ahmad

Dendrochronological investigations reveal declining growth rate of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. populations from 1840 to 2017 in Kashmir Himalayas


ABSTRACT:

Pinus roxburghii Sarg. is a keystone gymnosperm tree of Western Himalayan subtropical forests of Kashmir region. It is a good choice for dendrochronological investigations as its core samples have potential to reflect changes in climatic pattern its growth rings. The present dendrochronological study was aimed to investigate the trends in growth as well as structural attributes of P. roxburghii. A cross dated tree-ring chronology for 177 years period was developed from 1840 to 2017. The average growth rate of P. roxburghii was calculated as 0.89 ± 0.02 year/cm. Tree Ring Width index revealed that P. roxburghii growth rate decreased from 1840-1880 AD whereas the growth rate significantly increased during the period 1890-1920 followed by a gradual decline afterwards till 2017. A total of 101 years were marked with slow growth whereas higher growth was found in 75 years. The decline in growth rate is synchronized with the disturbance stimuli and socioeconomic transformations in the study area during the last century. The average DBH was recorded to be 87.87 cm, ranging from a minimum of 70.5 cm to a maximum of 108.5 cm whereas the average core length was recorded as 21.2 cm. The average age of P. roxburghii trees was calculated to be 123.06 years with the oldest tree specimen of 245 years. The decline in the Pinus growth rate appears to be synchronized with climate change induced increasing temperatures during the last century. It is recommended that the tree rings chronologies should be constructed for further keystone taxa to reconstruct past climatic history in this region

1075-1081 Download
29

Influence of lead, cadmium, and zinc on phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea. var. Botyris)


Zeeshan Rehman, Sheza Ayaz Khilji, Zahoor Ahmad Sajid and Muhammad Asrar Javed

Influence of lead, cadmium, and zinc on phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea. var. Botyris)


ABSTRACT:

This study was conducted to assess the impact of toxic heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and zinc) present in polluted waste-water on some phytochemical attributes (phenolic, flavoniods and antioxidant activity) in cauliflower plant. For this purpose, fresh and waste-water irrigating cauliflower samples were collected from different industrial sites of districts Narowal, Lahore and Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan. These samples were used for the estimation of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+, phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activities, to find out their accumulation and effects on cauliflower plants. The average concentration of Zn in sewage-irrigated samples was the highest (164.53 mgkg−1), followed by Cd2+ (81.91 mgkg−1) and Pb (72.81 mgkg−1).  Fresh-water Irrigated Cauliflower Samples (FICS) showed overall maximum (337.33 mgg-1) total Phenolic Contents (TPC) from Narowal followed by Kasur region. In the current study, heavy metals generally reduced the TPC in WICS compared to FICS. The maximum flavonoid contents (179.33 mgg-1) were observed in wastewater irrigated Cauliflower samples from Narowal followed by Lahore. It was observed that antioxidant activity was decreased in WICS or in heavy metal stress samples, while an increase in flavonoids was recorded in the plant that were irrigated with wastewater

1083-1088 Download
30

Ecological stoichiometric characteristics of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of different plant functional groups in northwestern Guizhou province, China


Yang-Hua Yu, Ying Wang and Xin-Ping Zhong

Ecological stoichiometric characteristics of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of different plant functional groups in northwestern Guizhou province, China


ABSTRACT:

The carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) ecological stoichiometric characteristics of plants from northwestern Guizhou Province, China was explored, to better understand their adaptation strategy in cold and drought-affected habitats and to improve the management of sustainable forestry. Leaves of four plant types (evergreen arbors, deciduous arbors, evergreen shrubs and deciduous shrubs), as well as the surrounding litter and soil, were collected and the concentrations of C, N and P were determined. Our study showed: (1) lower nutrient concentrations in plant leaves and soils in this area; and (2) that the nutrient concentrations may be affected by plant species, which is significant in deciduous arbors. The C:N, C:P and N:P ratios were greatest in the litter, smaller in leaves and lowest in soil. Large N:P ratios have been found in the litter of evergreen and deciduous arbor species. We found no significant relationship between nutrient concentrations in soil and plant leaves. N may be an important factor for plant growth in this area. Of the four plant types selected, deciduous shrubs were found to have a great ability to absorb nutrients from their habitats, while evergreen arbors adapted to their habitats by strengthening their defense capability. Evergreen and deciduous shrubs have a beneficial ecological function by conserving water and soil. Our study has provided a theoretic basis for the construction and management of plantation in northwestern Guizhou Province, China.

 

1089-1097 Download
31

Perspectives for the application of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants in biomonitoring of freshwater, saline and soda aquatic ecosystems


Zarina Inelova, Bolatkhan Zayadan, Yelena Zaparina, Mengtay Aitzhan and Emil Boros

Perspectives for the application of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants in biomonitoring of freshwater, saline and soda aquatic ecosystems


ABSTRACT:

Aquatic plants are essential components of many freshwater and saltwater ecosystems. In this review, we provide information on aquatic and semi -aquatic vegetation, on ecology (habitat, ecological groups) and morphological features (heterophylly, root system and mechanical tissues are poorly developed etc.) of macrophytes, as well as on environmental factors (light, temperature, ph, etc.) affecting their development. This article also contains information on the role and importance of coastal aquatic vegetation. Aquatic and semi aquatic plants are used as raw materials such as the pulp for paper, medicines, perfume industry, building materials, and fertilizers. Since these plants have a selective ability to absorb various substances, aquatic plants can be used as the indicators of the presence of toxicants in water. That is why the importance and relevance of further study of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants is beyond doubt. Aquatic plants differ significantly from terrestrial plants in their anatomical and physiological characteristics, life forms, and the ability to tolerate inorganic and biological stressors. Key examples of inorganic stressors are extreme flow rates, illumination, salinity, ice cover, temperature, nutrients and pollutants. Some aquatic plants have a worldwide distribution and display high polymorphism and phenotypic plasticity in response to variations in environmental factors. These qualities allow them to manifest and survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. However, some other species have a narrower area of distribution. In this review, we examined the key environmental factors affecting aquatic plants and also discussed their potential use as indicators at local and regional levels and the importance of monitoring, rational use and conservation of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants.

 

1099-1115 Download
32

An ethnomedicinal survey of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their current marketing in the Kakar region of Balochistan Pakistan


Khalil Ur Rehman, Saeed Ur Rehman, Mushtaq Ahmad, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Muhammad Zafar, Salman Majeed, Muhammad Din, Siraj Ahmed and Tahira Bibi

An ethnomedicinal survey of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their current marketing in the Kakar region of Balochistan Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

This study aimed to document indigenous knowledge about the utilization of medicinal plants for various illnesses in the North-Eastern part of the Kakar region of Balochistan province. The ethnomedicinal documentation contains quantitative and qualitative information on medicinal plant diversity with aimed to develop current marketing for medicinal plants being traded in the province of indigenous and imported plants. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews, rapid appraisal approach and open ended questionnaire. The results were analyzed using quantitative indices including Information Consensus Factor (ICF), Fidelity level (FL), use value (UV), Frequency Citation (FC) and Relative Frequency Citation (RFC). A total of 60 plant species belonging to 20 families were observed being used as ethnomedicinal remedies by local inhabitants. The medicinal use of Asteraceaea plants and Lamiaceae plants families were reported to be dominant with 10 species each. Whole plant was used most frequently (30%) by indigenous inhabitants. Medicinal species uses against treatment of almost 15 categories of very common disorders. The most common plants were identified of genus Artemisia (six species). Besides this, the genus Pulicaria was used by most informants for typhoid and malarial diseases. Lamiaceae was also an important family in this region with Seriphidum quettense was highly medicinal species commonly used by a majority in the native community. The reported medicinal species were mostly herbs (80%) followed by shrubs and trees (10% each). Gastrointestinal problems were most commonly treated with the highest number of different species (19). The number of medicinal plants documented in this study represents evidence of high diversity that will continue to play an important role in healthcare system. The inhabitants of Kakar range use plants with medicinal properties for curing of various diseases due to shortage of medical facilities and unaffordable prices of pharmaceutical drugs

1117-1130 Download
33

Nomenclatural notes and typification of some names in Morinda (Morindeae: Rubiaceae)


Muhammad Idrees, Zhiyong Zhang and Muhammad Arfan

Nomenclatural notes and typification of some names in Morinda (Morindeae: Rubiaceae)


ABSTRACT:

The names, Morinda angustifolia, M. angustifolia var. scabridula, M. longifolia, M. nana, and M. pumila are here lectotypified, and discussed. The previously, and invalidly published name Gynochthodes shuanghuaensis, is validated here by providing a full and complete reference to its basionym

1131-1134 Download
34

Comprehensive selection and variation analysis of growth traits and wood color of Castanopsis hystrix half-sib families


Guangjin Liu, Hongyan Jia, Wenhui Shen and Jianmin Xu

Comprehensive selection and variation analysis of growth traits and wood color of Castanopsis hystrix half-sib families


ABSTRACT:

Castanopsis hystrix is an economically valuable tropical/subtropical timber species naturally distributed in various Asian regions. Studies on genetic variations affecting C. hystrix growth and wood color traits can increase the wood value. Trees in a 17-year-old forest of 32 C. hystrix half-sib families were analyzed to determine genetic variations in growth traits. Genetic variations affecting wood color (L* (lightness), chromaticity coordinate a*, and chromaticity coordinate b* were evaluated in tree cores. Annual growth rates of diameter at breast height, tree height, and stem volume were 1.27 cm, 1.08 m, and 0.02 m3, respectively, indicating high growth. The L*, a*, and b* values of C. hystrix heartwood were 47.55 ± 5.02, 15.50 ± 1.86, and 19.26 ± 2.35, respectively. Block was the decisive factor affecting variations in L* of heartwood and family main affected heartwood a* differentiation. Block × family interactions significantly affected stem volume, heartwood a*, and heartwood b* but to a lesser extent than the individual effects of family and environment. The family heritability of diameter at breast height, tree height, volume, heartwood a*, and heartwood b* were 0.53, 0.56, 0.76, 0.85, 0.68, respectively. The individual heritability of corresponding characters were 0.10、0.14、0.11、0.11、and 0.04. The wood color of heartwood and sapwood had no genetic correlation with growth characters, which indicated that the wood color of heartwood and sapwood was independent of growth traits. Six half-sib families with excellent growth and heartwood color were selected by using a multi-trait comprehensive evaluation method. The mean genetic gain of diameter at breast height, tree height, volume, heartwood a*, and heartwood b* were 12.093%, 7.166%, 39.054%, 10.265% and 7.235%. These results provide a theoretical basis for the evaluation and selection of families with superior growth and wood color traits for genetic improvement and directed breeding of C. hystrix

1135-1144 Download
35

Influence of environmental heterogeneity on distributional pattern of blue panic grass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) in the Punjab, Pakistan


Muhammad Irshad and Mansoor Hameed

Influence of environmental heterogeneity on distributional pattern of blue panic grass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) in the Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Panicum antidotale Retz. is an evergreen, vigorous and C4 perennial grass growing up to 1 to 3m in length. It is commonly known as Bansi grass, Murrot, Giant panic, Ghirri, Ghamur and blue panic belonging to a fascinating family (Poaceae), originated from Indo-Pakistan region, and now naturalized in arid and semiarid region. Forty-eight populations were collected from six habitats of the Punjab, i.e., agricultural fields, river canal banks, roadsides, saline habitats, uncultivated lands, graveyards and forest plantations and waterlogged / industrial wastes pollution to explore their important attributes associated with widespread distribution of this native species across environmental heterogeneity. Among agricultural fields, P. antidotale was the most abundant at Brassica field at Makhdoom Rasheed (MR). Among saline habitats, importance value and relative cover was the maximum in highly saline Pasrur (PS). Among waterlogged areas and industrial waste pollutions, ecological attributes were the maximum in industrial waste disposal channel Gojra (GOJ). In saline habitat, RD showed negative trend with increasing salinity, while RF and RC showed positive response along salinity gradient. Importance value (IV) showed liner trend with increase in salinity. Among roadsides, soil Ca2+, NO3, OM, ECe and pH showed strong association with RF in SUM, SR and JHG sites. It was concluded that climate, soil and other abiotic factors have significant effect on species composition and distributional pattern of widespread Panicum antidotale Retz. in the Punjab, Pakistan

1145-1155 Download
36

Climate-smart agriculture: a way to ensure food security


Shakra Jamil, Shamsa Kanwal, Rida Kanwal, Humera Razzaq, Rahil Shahzad, Nishat Afza, Shakeel Ahmad and Sajid-Ur-Rahman

Climate-smart agriculture: a way to ensure food security


ABSTRACT:

Climate-smart agriculture is currently gaining attention at the global level for sustainable food production and ensuring food security in a changing climate. Climate change is a major threat to agricultural systems by reducing agricultural productivity and affecting food security. Climate-smart agriculture is a practice that has proved helpful in mitigation and adaptation to changing climate, enhancement of agricultural productivity, incorporation of resilience, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In this review, we have highlighted the role of different practices i.e. Plant Breeding (Crop Wild Relatives, Shuttle breeding, Genomics Selection, Genome-Wide Association Studies, Genome Editing, and Double Haploid Breeding), biotechnological approaches (Genome editing and Genetic engineering) and sensor-based precision agriculture technologies for real data about soil and crops which are helpful in changing climate scenarios. Agroforestry, crop rotation, crop diversification, laser leveling, and other advanced agronomic approaches for enhancing soil organic matter, and water holding and retention capacity of soil may lower the cost and increase food and agricultural productivity, eventually increasing farmer’s income. Governments and scientists should create awareness among people about climate change and its impacts and should also devise ways to mitigate them, keeping in view the above-mentioned techniques. Adoption of climate-smart practices by the farmer community will help in reducing the negative impacts of climate change on agriculture to achieve sustainable food production.

 

1157-1167 Download
37

Yield, quality and competition parameters of forage rape


Mehmet Can, Suleyman Zeybek, Ozlem Onal Asci, Yeliz Kasko Arici, Ilknur Ayan and Zeki Acar

Yield, quality and competition parameters of forage rape


ABSTRACT:

Growing lots of crops probably would be restricted by global warming in the close future, necessary precautions should be developed. Because of its rapid growing ability and could be growing in winter period without irrigation, research activities, recently, were focused on forage rape to keep and also increase high quality roughage production. Forage rape can be grown alone, as well as grown with rye, oat, barley and annual ryegrass as binary mixture. This study was carried out in coastal area of Central Black Sea Region in Turkey during the 2015-16 and 2016-17 vegetation periods for two years. In the study forage rape (FR) cv Lenox, Hungarian vetch (HV) cv Tarm Beyazı-98, common vetch (CV) cv Nilüfer, forage pea (FP) cv Özkaynak and oat (O) cv Faikbey were used. Forage rape was planted with the other ones as binary mixture (50:50), as well as pure stand of crops. Aim of the study was to determine forage yield and some quality traits, and to investigate competition between the crops. In the consequence of this study it was determined that hay yields of all mixtures were superior to pure stands of the same crops. Competition was effected by crops and years. Though, all mixtures had advantage compare to pure stands (LER>1 and ACYL positive), consider together hay and CP yields, ADF and NDF ratios, especially FR+FP, FR+HV and FR+CV mixtures were superior to the other treatments. To increase high quality forage production these mixtures can be recommended in similar environmental conditions

1169-1174 Download
38

 Inhibition of fungicide on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of cucumber at different growth stages and field control effects


Dan Zhang, Xilin Sun, Xinyue Ma, Ronglie Gong and Xiaomei Wang

 Inhibition of fungicide on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of cucumber at different growth stages and field control effects


ABSTRACT:

In order to screen high-efficient fungicides against Sclerotinia rot of cucumber, the growth rate inhibition method was used to determine the effects of 10 fungicides on the silk growth and sclerotia formation of Sclerotinia rot of cucumber, and the virulence regression equation was constructed to calculate the EC50 value. On the basis of indoor experiments, four kinds of fungicides with good inhibition effect were selected for field efficacy trials and their effects on controlling cucumber sclerotinia rot in the field were evaluated. The indoor results show that: The growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum silk was highly inhibited by 200g/L fluoroacyl-hydroxy-benzotriazole (SC), 45% prochloraz (EW), 25% imazalil-fludioxonil (SE), 38% Oxazolidinyl bacteria. The growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum nucleus was highly inhibited by 38% azolyl-boscalid (SE), 50% boscalid (WG), 200g/L Benzene propiconazole (EC) and 25% imazalil-fludioxonill (SE). Two fungicides, 25% imazalil-fludioxonil (SE) and 38% Oxazolidinyl bacteria (SE), could inhibit the growth of both hyphae and sclerotium. The results of field efficacy trials showed that: The field efficacy of 45% prochloraz (EW) and 200g/L fluoroacyl-hydroxy-benzotriazole (SC) was significantly higher than that of the control 50% carbendazim (WP). The field efficacy of 25% imazalil-fludioxonil (SE) and 38% azolyl-boscalid (SE) was not as significant as that of the control. This experiment provided a theoretical and practical basis for the fungicide control of Sclerotinia rot of cucumber in production.

 

1175-1179 Download
39

Antagonistic activity and molecular characterization of isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Pseudomonas syringae causing bacterial canker diseases in apricot


Shagufta Bibi, Muhammad Inam-Ul-Haq, Abid Riaz, Rana Bin Yamin and Saad Imran Malik

Antagonistic activity and molecular characterization of isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Pseudomonas syringae causing bacterial canker diseases in apricot


ABSTRACT:

Phytopathogenic bacteria are causing severe losses in crops, orchards and vegetables. Bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants, acting as biological control agent, play an important role in suppression of disease caused by phytopathogenic bacteria.  The purpose of this study is to do the molecular characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the rhizospheric soil of apricot trees and assessing its antagonistic potential against bacterial canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae. During In vitro activity Rh37 produced best results against all the virulent isolates of P. syringae. Rh37 as stongest antagonistic isolate was selected and referred to molecular characterization. During greenhouse evaluation of antagonists, rhizobacteria when applied resulted into maximum disease suppression and enhanced plant growth characters (Shoot height, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight). On molecular characterization, Rh37 was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The result of this study suggests P. aeruginosa as a good biocontrol agent against P. syringae causing bacterial canker disease

1181-1186 Download
40

Enhancement of defensive capability of okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) against root rot disease by the endophytic fluorescent pseudomonas and seaweed soil amendment


Irshad Ahmed, Rawish Zehra, Sami-Ur-Rahman, Shumaila Moin, Syed Muhammad Enamullah and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Enhancement of defensive capability of okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) against root rot disease by the endophytic fluorescent pseudomonas and seaweed soil amendment


ABSTRACT:

Management of plant root diseases by the application of seaweed and endophytic bacteria, particularly fluorescent Pseudomonas, is capturing the interest of plant scientists. In this study, the effect of seaweed soil amendment alone or mixed with endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas (EFP-47) in reducing the root infecting fungi of okra was evaluated in pots and field plot experiments. The experiments conducted in 2019 and repeated in 2020, showed that soil amendment with seaweed, Stokeyia indica, and Ulva fasciata alone or mixed with fluorescent Pseudomonas significantly suppressed Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, and Rhizoctonia solani on okra roots compared to untreated control plants. In general U. fasciata + EFP-47 treated plants showed maximum inhibition of root rotting fungi. In addition, seaweed and Pseudomonas (EFP-47) applications increased the plant height and fresh weight in pots as well as in field plot experiments. Seaweed used alone or mixed with Pseudomonas (EFP-47) ameliorated the activity of plant resistance markers like salicylic acid and polyphenolic contents, improved antioxidant activity and phosphorus uptake in plants. It is suggested that endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas and seaweed could be used for the management of root diseases of okra

1187-1196 Download
41

The impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment on rice (Oryza sativa L.) production: a review


Mohammad Sadiq Salihi, Muhammad Saiful Ahmad-Hamdani and Mashitah Jusoh

The impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment on rice (Oryza sativa L.) production: a review


ABSTRACT:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the world's most important crops and the primary source of calories for more than three billion people worldwide, especially in Asia. Currently, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is 416 µmol mol-1 and increasing rapidly due to industrialization, which is the main cause of global warming. Current climate change and rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere have varying global impacts on crop performance. As CO2 is one of the limiting factors in photosynthesis, adding this gas can increase carboxylation activity, hence increasing productivity and yield. Elevated CO2 (eCO2) significantly impacted C3 crops' productivity by increasing photosynthesis, biomass, and grain yield. Plants cultivated under eCO2 conditions demonstrated better development and photosynthesis, lower transpiration, improved water efficiency, decreased inorganic nutrition concentration, increased plant hormone, and compact stomatal density than the plants grown under ambient CO2 (aCO2) conditions. This review discusses the effects of eCO2 on rice plant photosynthesis and growth. The review also describes that eCO2 increased yield components of rice plants. Finally, the current review emphasizes the grain quality of rice that was negatively affected by eCO2. The review paper aims to describe rice production under CO2 increases under climate changes in the future. The synthesis of all this information is helpful to the researchers, advisors of rice farmers, and policymakers to provide a favourable plan by using eCO2 to increase rice plant growth and yield and maintain grain quality through enriching free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system for the rice plant to produce enough, and high-quality food for the increasing population of the world.

 

1197-1204 Download
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