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Genotypes selection for plant bioassays using Lactuca sativa L. and Allium cepa L

Simone Cristina Dos Santos, Ursuléia Aparecida De Oliveira, Luciene De Oliveira Ribeiro Trindade, Mateus Donizetti Oliveira Assis, José Marcello Sallabert Campos, Eduardo Gomes Salgado and Sandro Barbosa

Plant bioassays are considered an efficient, quick and inexpensive tool to monitor environmental interference caused by anthropogenic action, as well as to test the biological action of chemical substances. Lactuca sativa L. (Lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (Onion) are among the most used test organisms in plant bioassays; however, little is known about the behavior of different genotypes of these species within the bioassay dynamics. In this context, it is necessary to characterize and rank cultivars of these species that respond better to germination tests, initial growth and cytogenetic parameters for greater efficiency and reliability of the results from plant bioassays. 30 seeds were put in Petri dishes, moistened with 3.0 mL distilled water, placed in a germination chamber at 24ºC, with a 12-hour photoperiod. Germination percentage, germination speed index, number of normal seedlings, root length, shoot length, fresh and dry biomass, mitotic index, frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and DNA content were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5%, besides multicriteria analysis with the aid of TOPSIS. The most suitable cultivars for phytotoxicity and cytotoxotoxicity studies, in descending order, are Babá de Verão, Grand Rapids and Grandes Lagos (Lettuce) and Baia Periforme, Crioula and Vale Ouro (Onion). These genotypes were highly sensitive to characterize the toxicity of a chemical substance.

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