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Analyzing the variability and genotype × season interaction to assess the biological homeostasis in yellow maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm using advanced biometrical inferences

Muhammad Amir Maqbool, Muhammad Aslam, Abdurahman Beshir and Muhammad Sarwar Khan

Yellow maize is grown in autumn and spring seasons and prevailing in both dent and flint types. High yield with stable performance of yellow maize genotypes across these seasons is desire of local farmers. Total 150 yellow maize accessions including both dent and flint types were subjected to field trial under augmented design in both autumn and spring seasons. Data for different morphological and yield related traits were collected and subsequently subjected to analysis of variance, principal component biplot analysis, stability indices and GGE biplot analysis. Significant differences were observed in yellow maize accessions across autumn and spring seasons. Yellow maize accessions were high yielding in spring season relative to autumn season. Among total 150 yellow accessions, 90 were of flint type and 60 were of dent type. Yellow Dent and flint accessions were also significantly different for morphological and yield related traits; yellow dent accessions were better performing and high yielding relative to flint. During autumn season, accessions 14965, 19205, 14982, 15019, 15173, 15172, 15171, 15194, 15205, 24687, 15163, 15169, 15190) and 906 were better performing whereas, in spring season, accessions 15353, 19175, 15076, 15328, 15077, 15189, 15207, 15061 and 15071 were better performing for studied traits. Accessions 19175, 15353, 15207, 15187, 19205, 15185, 15172, 15205, 15227, 15167, 15190, 14970, 14971 and 15019 among dent and accessions14965, 15102, 15101, 15109, 15131, 15011, 15218, 14919, 15192 and 15011 among flint were superior performers. GGE biplot analysis, cultivar superiority index, static stability and wricke's ecovalence were used for estimation of biological homeostasis in grain yield. Accessions were given different ranks by these three stability indices when indices were considered individually. Mean ranks based on static stability, cultivar superiority index and wricke's ecovalence were proved effective and their results were comparable with results of GGE biplot analysis. Accessions 15328, 19175, 15069, 15077, 15189, 15258, 24688, 15186, 15100 and 15105 were unanimously declared stable with higher grain yield across autumn and spring seasons. Conclusively these genotypes could be exploited for higher yield with stable performance. Mean ranks based on static stability, cultivar superiority index and wricke's ecovalence could also be used as alternative to GGE biplot analysis and vice versa

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