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Antibacterial, antioxidant and phenolics compound analysis of Abrus precatorius seed coat extract and its different fractions

Lubna Mobin, Syed Asad Saeed, Rashida Ali Syed Muhammad Ghufran Saeed and Rahil Ahmed

Chromatographic (DAD-HPLC) analysis of purified fractions from Abrus precatorius seed coat extract has been performed; the predominant phenolic compounds found were delphinidin, epicatechin, syringic acid, caeffic & vanillic acid. The purification was done by solid phase extraction (SPE) through using C18 silica bonded sorbent; two main fractions (non-anthocyanin I & anthocyanin II) were elucidated from extract and three sub fractions (neutral Ia, neutral Ib, acidic Ic) were separated from non-anthocyanin fraction. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by an agar well diffusion method against three Gram-negative & two Gram-positive bacteria. Result showed that A. precatorius seed coat extract were active against a panel of bacteria. Moreover fractionation of seed coat extract increased the antibacterial effect. Among sub-fractions, fraction Ic was found more active against gram positive bacteria whereas gram negative bacteria was found more sensitive towards fraction Ia. Antioxidant screening was done by four different methods; diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy, reducing power, phenanthroline and lipoxygenase assay. Result showed that A. precatorius seed coat extract have excellent free radical scavenging activity and reduction potential.  The order of antioxidant activity of the fractions was equivalent to their sequence of total phenolic and flavonoid contents i.e. fraction I>fraction Ic >fraction Ib>fraction Ia (except fraction II). The antioxidant activities of crude extract were highly correlated with the total phenolic content (p<0.01). Current finding suggest that along with the total phenolic content, the structure of polyphenols direct its antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. This study highlighted the medicinal importance of the seed coat of A. precatorius and its potent phenolic constituent. It suggested that the seed coat of A. precatorius could potentially be used for the isolation of potent antibacterial and antioxidant compounds. 

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